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Article
March 1922

THE EFFLUX OF BLOOD FROM THE CAROTID ARTERY OF THE DOG AND ITS EXPRESSION BY A GENERAL EMPIRICAL FORMULA

Author Affiliations

MINNEAPOLIS

From the Physiology Department, University of Minnesota.

Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1922;29(3):368-383. doi:10.1001/archinte.1922.00110030093006
Abstract

The study of the normal and pathologic significance of the blood pressure has been a subject of interest for many years. It was not until mechanical instruments were available, however, that any accurate measurements of blood pressure were taken. Ludwig, in 1847, first obtained a blood pressure tracing. In 1882, almost forty years later, V. Basch invented the tonometer. Roy and Adami in 1890 modified this for external use and Riva Rocca in 1896 manufactured the first practical clinical instrument for taking blood pressures.

During the last two decades, the clinical literature has been filled with blood pressure observations on both man and animal. The normal blood pressure of man has been established by a score of investigators; Alvarez,1 Barach and Marks,2 Cook,3 Dawson,4 Fisher,5 Frau Wolfensohn-Kriss,6 Goepp,7 Greene,8 Kammerer,9 Lee,10 MacKenzie,11 Michael,12 Sallom,13 Smith,14 Sorapure,15 Weysse,16 and Woley.17 The series by Goepp included 9,996 determinations; that of Fisher, 12,647;

References
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Alvarez, W. C.:  Blood Pressure in University Freshmen ,  Arch. Int. Med. 26:381 ( (Sept.) ) 1920.Crossref
2.
Barach, J. H.:  Blood Pressures ,  Arch. Int. Med. 13:648 ( (May) ) 1914.Crossref
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Cook, H. W.:  Clinical Value of Blood Pressure Determinations as a Guide to Stimulation in Sick Children ,  Am. J. M. Sc. 125:483, 1903.Crossref
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Fisher:  Blood Pressure ,  Proc. Ass. Life Ins. Med. Directors of America , 1915, pp. 90, 246
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Frau Wolfensohn-Kriss, P.:  Ueber den Blutdruck in Kindesalter ,  Arch. f. Kinderh. 52-53:332, 1910.
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Lee, R. I.:  Blood Pressure Determinations, Urinary Findings and Differential Blood Counts in a Group of 662 Young Male Adults ,  Boston M. & S. J. 173:541, 1915.
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MacKenzie:  Blood Pressure ,  Proc. Assn. Life Ins. Med. Directors of America, N. Y. , 1917, p. 221.
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Michael, M.:  A Study of Normal Blood Pressure in Children ,  Am. J. Dis. Child. 1:272 ( (March) ) 1911.
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Sallom, A. K.:  Standardization of Blood Pressure ,  New York M. J. 92:620 ( (Sept. 24) ) 1910.
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Smith, B.:  Blood Pressure Studies of 500 Men ,  J. A. M. A. 71:171 ( (July 20) ) 1918.
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Sorapure, V. E.:  Blood Pressure and Physical Fitness of the Soldier ,  Lancet 2:841 ( (Dec. 21) ) 1918.
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Woley, H. G.:  The Normal Variation of the Systolic Blood Pressure ,  J. A. M. A. 55:121 ( (July 9) ) 1910.
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