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January 1940


Author Affiliations
From the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School.
Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1940;65(1):90-105. doi:10.1001/archinte.1940.00190070100007

The occurrence of increased amounts of carotene in the blood of patients with diabetes mellitus has long been recognized both by the clinical observation of xanthosis and by the results of laboratory tests. As early as 1904 von Noorden and Isaac1 commented on the yellow pigmentation occurring in some patients with diabetes mellitus. In 1914 Palmer and Eckles2 showed that carotene was present in the blood in the form of a carotoalbumin, and in 1919 Hess and Myers3 correlated the occurrence of increased amounts of carotene in the blood with the yellowish pigmentation of the skin previously noted by von Noorden. In 1929 and 1930 Rabinowitch4 noted that in patients with diabetes mellitus and xanthosis the diabetes appeared to be more severe and more difficult to control than in those without hypercarotenemia. In 85 per cent of 500 cases of diabetes mellitus studied at that time the carotene values were

von Noorden, C., and Isaac, S., 1904, cited in  Die Zuckerkrankheit und ihre Behandlung , ed. 8, Berlin, Julius Springer, 1927.
Palmer, L. S., and Eckles, C. A.:  Carotin, the Principal Natural Yellow Pigment of Milk Fat; Its Relations to Plant Carotin and the Carotin of the Body Fat, Corpus Luteum and Blood Serum: I. The Chemical and Physiological Relation of the Pigments of Milk Fat to the Carotin and Xanthophylls of Green Plants ,  J. Biol. Chem. 17:191, 1914.
Hess, A. J., and Myers, V. C.:  A New Clinical Picture ,  J. A. M. A. 73:1743 ( (Dec. 6) ) 1919.Crossref
Rabinowitch, I. M.:  Cholesterol Content of Blood Plasma in Diabetes Mellitus and Juvenile Diabetes ,  Arch. Int. Med. 43:363 ( (March) ) 1929Crossref
 Carotinemia and Diabetes , Rabinowitch Arch. Int. Med. 45:586 ( (April) ) 1930.Crossref
Rabinowitch, I. M.:  Observations on Significance of Cholesterol Content of Blood Plasma in Diabetes Mellitus ,  Canad. M. A. J. 28:162 ( (Feb.) ) 1933.
White, F. D., and Gordon, E. M.:  Estimation of Serum Carotene ,  J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 17:53 ( (Oct.) ) 1931.
Palmer, L. S.:  Carotinoids and Related Pigments , New York, The Chemical Catalogue Company, 1922.
Stueck, G. H.; Flaum, G., and Ralli, E. P.:  Serum Carotene in Diabetic Patients, with Clinical Evidence of Carotenemia as Determined by Photo-Electric Colorimeter ,  J. A. M. A. 109:343 ( (July 31) ) 1937.
Drummond, J. C.; Gilding, H. P., and MacWalter, R. J.:  Fate of Carotene Introduced into the Circulation ,  J. Physiol. 82:75 ( (Aug.) ) 1934.
Ralli, E. P.; Brandaleone, H., and Mandelbaum, T.:  Studies of the Effect of Administration of Carotene and Vitamin A in Diabetics ,  J. Lab. & Clin. Med. 20:1266 ( (Sept.) ) 1935.
Ralli, E. P.; Pariente, A. C.; Brandaleone, H., and Davidson, S.:  Effect of Carotene and Vitamin A on Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Effect of Daily Administration of Carotene on the Blood Carotene of Normal and Diabetic Individuals ,  J. A. M. A. 106:1975 ( (June 6) ) 1936.
Heymann, W.:  Carotenemia in Diabetes ,  J. A. M. A. 106:2050 ( (June 13) ) 1936.
Clausen, S. W.:  Limits of Anti-Infective Value of Pro-Vitamin A (Carotene) ,  J. A. M. A. 101:1384 ( (Oct. 28) ) 1933.
Jeghers, H.:  Night Blindness as Criteria of Vitamin A Deficiency: Review of Literature with Preliminary Observations of Degree of Vitamin A Deficiency Among Adults in Health and Disease ,  Ann. Int. Med. 10:1304 ( (March) ) 1937.
Moore, T.:  Vitamin A and Carotene: Vitamin A Reserve of Adult Liver in Health and Disease ,  J. Biol. Chem. 31:155 ( (Jan.) ) 1937.
Bessey, O. A., and Wolbach, S. B.:  Vitamin A: Physiology and Pathology ,  J. A. M. A. 110:2072 ( (June 18) ) 1938.
Feldman, J. B.:  The Use of the Photometer in Detecting Latent Avitaminosis A, in Nutrition: The Newer Diagnostic Methods , New York. The Milbank Memorial Fund, 1938.
Jeans, P. C.; Blanchard, E., and Zentmire, Z.:  Dark Adaption and Vitamin A: A New Photometric Technic ,  J. A. M. A. 108:451 ( (Feb. 6) ) 1937.
Jeghers, H.:  Degree and Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency in Adults, with a Note on Its Experimental Production in Human Beings ,  J. A. M. A. 109:756 ( (Sept. 4) ) 1937.
Sackett, G. E.:  Modification of Bloor's Method for the Determination of Cholesterol in Whole Blood or Blood Serum ,  J. Biol. Chem. 64:203 ( (May) ) 1925.
Bloor, W. R., and Knudson, A.:  The Separate Determination of Cholesterol and Cholesterol Esters in Small Amounts of Blood ,  J. Biol. Chem. 27:107 ( (Oct.) ) 1916.
Smaco carotene in vegetable oil (1 cc. contains 7,500 U. S. P. units of vitamin A).
Parke, Davis haliver oil capsules, "Natola" (1 capsule contains approximately 9,800 U. S. P. units of vitamin A).
Corlette, M. B.; Youmans, J. B.; Frank, H., and Corlette, M. G.:  Photometric Studies of Visual Adaptation in Relation to Mild Vitamin A Deficiency in Adults ,  Am. J. M. Sc. 195:54 ( (Jan.) ) 1938.
Wald, G. H.; Jeghers, H., and Arminio, J.:  Experiment in Human Dietary Night Blindness ,  Am. J. Physiol. 123:732 ( (Sept.) ) 1938.