[Skip to Content]
[Skip to Content Landing]
Article
January 1914

A CLINICAL STUDY OF AMYLASE IN THE URINE: WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE PHENOLSULPHONEPHTHALEIN TEST†

Arch Intern Med (Chic). 1914;XIII(1):96-120. doi:10.1001/archinte.1914.00070070101005
Abstract

Since Majendie,1 in 1846, first found an amylolytic enzyme in human blood, and later, in 1863, Cohnheim2 wrote of its presence in the urine, Plósz and Tiegil,3 Foster,4 Lépine5 and many other writers have confirmed these earlier investigators and attempted to determine the quantitative value of amylase with reference to certain pathological conditions, more particularly those of the kidney. All the various methods devised were unwieldy and inaccurate however, and most of the information gained contradictory. In 1908 Wohlgemuth6 devised a quantitative test which for the simplicity, accuracy and uniformity of its results so far surpassed any test previously proposed that it has been generally adopted by chemists and clinicians alike for the estimation of amylase in blood, urine, feces and other body substances.

Nearly all the contributions to our literature on this subject have come from French and German writers, and

References
1.
Wajendie:  Compt. rend., Acad. d. sc. , 1846, xxiii, 189.
2.
Cohnheim:  Virchow's Arch. f. path. anat. , 1863, xxviii, 241.Crossref
3.
Plósz and Tiegil:  Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. (Pflügers) , 1873, vii, 391.Crossref
4.
Foster, M.:  Jour. Anat. and Physiol. , 1867, i, 107.
5.
Lépine:  Compt. rend., Acad. d. sc. , 1891, cxiii, 1014.
6.
Wohlgemuth, J.:  Biochem. Ztschr. , 1908, ix, 1.
7.
Wohlegmuth, J., and Noguchi, Y.:  Berl. klin. Wchnschr. , 1912, xxiii, 1069.
8.
In case 2 drops of iodin solution to each tube is not sufficient to bring out a permanent color, add as many more drops to the tube as will be necessary, being careful to add exactly the same number of drops to each of the other tubes.
9.
Corbett ( Quart. Jour. Med. , 1913, vi, 351)
10.
Wohlgemuth (see Note 7)
11.
A few cubic centimeters of toluol should be added to all twenty-four-hour specimens, to prevent bacterial growth. This does not interfere with the "d" readings, and preserves the urine for six months or more, giving the same "d" reading at the end of that time as when freshly voided.
12.
Wohlgemuth, J.:  Ztschr. f. Urol. , 1911, i, 801.
13.
Benczur, J.:  Wien. klin. Wchnschr. , 1910, xxiv, 890.
14.
Wynhausen, O. J.:  Berl. klin. Wchnschr. , 1910, xlvi, 2107.
15.
Rosenthal, A.:  Deutsch. med. Wchnschr. , 1911, xxxvii, 923.Crossref
16.
Marino, E.:  Deutsch. Arch. f. klin. Med. , 1911, ciii, 325.
17.
Neuman:  Deutsch. Arch. f. klin. Med. , 1913, cix, 164.
18.
Wohlgemuth:  Biochem. Ztschr. , 1909, xxi, 432.
19.
Grüttzner:  Breslauer ärztl. Ztschr. , 1882, xvii, 193.
20.
Gehrig, J.:  Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. (Pflügers) , 1885, xxxviii, 38.
21.
Hoffman:  Arch. f. d. ges. Physiol. (Pflügers) , 1887, xli, 148.Crossref
22.
Rosenberg: Dissertation, Tübingen, 1890.
23.
Leo:  Verhandl. d. VII. Kongr. f. inn. Med. , 1888, 364.
24.
Wohlgemuth, J.:  Biochem. Ztschr. , 1909, xxi, 381.
25.
Schlesinger, W.:  Deutsch. med. Wchnschr. , 1908, xiv, 593.Crossref
26.
Cole:  Jour. Physiol. , 1904, xxx, 202.
27.
Wohlgemuth, J.:  Biochem. Ztschr. , 1908, ix, 10.
28.
Wohlgemuth, J.:  Biochem. Ztschr. , 1911, xxxiii, 303.
29.
Pozerski, L.: Thèse de Paris, 1902, 70.
30.
Lüthje, H.:  Festschr. f. J. Rosenthal , 1906, ii, 131-138.
31.
Wohlgemuth, J., and Benczur:  Biochem. Ztschr. , 1909, xxi, 460.
32.
Case 29 is omitted as here the pus was very large in amount and was probably the main source of the albumin.
33.
Neuman's work appeared after this investigation had been concluded and the tables made out. Allusions to his work have been included only as they could be added to the text and had reference to what has already been written. His work on the effect of dilution on the "d" reading has not been alluded to as no time to study its application has been available.
34.
Hirata, G.:  Biochem. Ztschr. , 1910, xxviii, 23.
35.
Cases 15 and 24 are here included as the later high readings for phenolsulphonephthalein were not explained clinically.
36.
Rowntree, Geraghty and Fitz:  The Archives. Int. Med. , 1913, xi, 121.Crossref
37.
Rowntree and Fitz:  The Archives Int. Med. , 1913, xi, 258.Crossref
38.
Leo:  Verhandl. d. VII. Kongr. f. inn. Med. , 1888.
39.
Benderesky:  Virchows Arch. f. path. Anat. , 1890, 121, 554.Crossref
40.
Enriquez and Binet:  Compt. rend. hebd. Soc. de biol. de Paris , 1908, lxv, 577.
41.
Loeper and Ficai:  Arch. de méd. expér. et d'anat. path. , 1907, xix, 722.
42.
Clark:  Glasgow Med. Jour. , 1905, (June) , 632.
43.
Straus, H.:  Deutsch. med. Wchnschr. , 1912, iv, 163.Crossref
44.
Rosenthal, A.:  Berl. klin. Wchnschr. , 1912, xlix, 1265.
45.
Braunschweig: Dissertation, Leipsic, 1910.
46.
Wohlgemuth, J.:  Biochem. Ztschr. , 1909, xxi, 447.
×