This systematic review and meta-analysis compares the prevalence of bacteremia and bacterial meningitis in febrile neonates vs febrile infants in their second month of life presenting to an ambulatory care setting.
This prognostic study evaluates the use of machine-learning methods, with prescription drug and claims data, in detecting opioid overdose risk in Medicare beneficiaries with at least 1 opioid prescription.
This qualitative study of medical research language assesses changes in 5 medical journals and broader changes in the culture of clinical investigation during the last 40 years.
This network meta-analysis examines the results of randomized clinical trials that evaluated the effectiveness and safety of atypical antipsychotics in patients with dementia.
This population-based nationwide cohort study evaluates the incidence rates of hazardous hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus among near-term to term infants in Sweden and assesses health care professionals’ adherence to best practices.
This cross-sectional study investigates the proportion of black African adults in London, United Kingdom, who have been tested for HIV in the past 5 years and the proportion living with diagnosed and undiagnosed HIV.
This case-cohort study evaluates the association of circulating plasma chemerin concentrations with incident colorectal cancer among adults in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)–Potsdam cohort.
This cross-sectional study estimates the rates of cesarean delivery and assesses regional and socioeconomic disparities within these rates among females of child-bearing age in India.
This ancillary cohort study of the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART) examines the association of the gut microbiome in infancy with development of motor skills, problem solving, communication, and personal and social skills at preschool age.
This population-based cohort study uses the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File to evaluate sex differences among radiation oncologists in productivity, breadth of practice, and payments and to characterize Medicare reimbursement by sex among similar groups of radiation oncologists.
This multicenter cohort study identifies the clinical characteristics and needs of adults with active cancer who present to emergency departments (EDs).
This case-control study examines the risk for cardiac dysfunction in African children hospitalized for severe, acute malnutrition.
This diagnostic study measures the ability of a deep learning–based algorithm to discriminate between chest radiographs with normal results and chest radiographs with abnormal results indicating major thoracic disease.
This 4-parallel-arm randomized clinical trial determines the effectiveness of financial incentives on fecal immunochemical test screening completion vs no incentive among adults who were sent kits by mail.
This population-based cross-sectional study uses data from the IQVIA Xponent database for all opioid prescriptions filled in the United States from 2006 through 2017 to evaluate national and state trends in amount, dosage, duration, and formulation.
This cohort study compares the risk of substance-related acute hospital admission during periods of methadone-medicated vs nonmedicated periods in individuals in Canada with a history of criminal conviction.
This cohort study investigates whether higher levels of light physical activity measured by accelerometry are associated with reduced risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) or cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older women.
This cohort study reports patterns of hospitalizations, treatments, and outcomes for US Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 years or older with acute myocardial infarction from 1995 to 2014.
This survey study assesses trends and factors associated with physician burnout in a large academic medical faculty practice.
This longitudinal cohort study assesses how remote monitoring of continuous step count activity for 1 year among individuals with multiple sclerosis is associated with other measures of multiple sclerosis disability.
This prognostic study examines the ability of an artificial intelligence system to predict the state of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis at their next clinical visit.
This cohort study uses a time-series analysis to examine differences in mortality and hospital readmissions in black vs white patients 65 years and older after introduction of the Medicare Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program.
This secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial investigates the long-term effectiveness of an intervention that aimed to reduce dental caries among South Australian Aboriginal children.
This randomized clinical trial examines the effectiveness of administering a more intensive insulin-adherence intervention only to individuals with type 2 diabetes estimated to benefit based on predictive analytics vs administering a lower-intensity intervention to a larger group of unselected individuals.
This systematic review and meta-analysis compares the accuracy of lung ultrasonography vs chest radiography in the diagnosis of pulmonary edema in acute decompensated heart failure in adults.
This cohort study of Japanese adults who survived the atomic bomb assesses whether extreme body weight variation is associated with mortality after controlling for nonlinear weight changes.
This cohort study investigates whether a brief self-report battery from a survey of US Army soldiers is associated with identification of those with suicide ideation who are at the highest risk of suicide attempt.
This cohort study analyzes questionnaire data from the National Institutes of Health–AARP (formerly American Association of Retired Persons) Diet and Health Study to assess whether an association exists between risk of all-cause, cardiovascular disease–related, or cancer-related mortality and self-reported leisure-time physical activity patterns across the life course.
This cross-sectional study examines whether there is an association between race/ethnicity and access to level I and level II trauma centers within Chicago, Illinois; New York, New York; and Los Angeles, California.
This multicenter quality improvement study type describes the practice of phishing simulation and the extent to which health care employees are vulnerable to phishing simulations.
This secondary analysis of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial uses a random forest–based analysis to assess whether clinically important heterogeneity exists in the risk of harm associated with intensive blood pressure treatment among adults with hypertension who smoke.
This population-based cohort study uses mendelian randomization to examine the association of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption with levels of liver injury biomarkers and incident liver disease in adults in Denmark.
This population-based cross-sectional study evaluates the associations of long-term exposures to air pollutants with cardiometabolic risk factors and prevalence of cardiovascular disease among adults in China.
This cohort study examines data from the IQVIA PharMetrics Plus database for prevalence of opioid use disorder and treatment among a random sample of privately insured pregnant women in 4 regions across the United States.
This prognostic study compares standard readmission risk assessment scores with a machine learning score, the Baltimore score, for predicting 30-day unplanned hospital readmissions calculated in real time.
This cross-sectional study evaluates the potential change in the diagnosis, treatment, and control of hypertension in a Canadian cohort of patients with hypertension attending primary care practices using the 2017 American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines.
This cohort study investigates whether precancer osteoporosis and osteoporosis therapy are associated with bone metastasis patterns in patients with breast cancer.
This quality improvement study compares several artificial intelligence (AI) cross-validation approaches to evaluate the performance of a classifier for automatic grading of prostate cancer in digitized histopathologic images, both when trained using data from 1 expert and when trained using data from multiple experts.
This cross-sectional study uses cases from the Human Diagnosis Project to compare the accuracy of single-physicians’ diagnoses with pooled diagnoses from groups of physicians.
This randomized clinical trial reports the process and outcomes of establishing the collaborative chronic care model in 9 mental health facilities within the US Department of Veterans Affairs system.
This secondary analysis of data from the National Lung Screening Trial develops and validates a risk prediction model that incorporates low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening results for patients being screened for lung cancer.
This nationwide, population-based cohort study uses data from the Korean National Health Information Database to assess whether an association exists between low-dose aspirin use and lung cancer risk and to identify specific subgroups that may benefit most from low-dose aspirin use.
This cohort study uses Medicare data to compare time to skilled nursing facility admission and cardiovascular (CV) events among patients with Alzheimer disease receiving acetylcholinesterase inhibitor monotherapy, memantine monotherapy, or combination acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and memantine therapy.
This population-based cohort study examines family history of mental and neurological disorders among first- to fourth-degree relatives and risk of autism spectrum disorders with and without intellectual disability in index persons from the Stockholm Youth Cohort in Sweden.
This secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial examines levels of postoperative pain to identify a factor that may be associated with the probability of pain cessation, opioid cessation, and recovery.
This cohort study assesses changes in survival probabilities and failure hazard after radiotherapy in adult patients with early-stage extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma based on risk categories, previous survival, and treatment.
This secondary analysis of 3 randomized clinical trials estimates the effect on cognitive aging of the avoidance of vascular events and evaluates whether reports of nonsignificant results exclude worthwhile benefit among patients with vascular disease.
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