[Skip to Content]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address 35.173.48.224. Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
[Skip to Content Landing]

August 2019, Vol 2, No. 8

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Feasibility of Core Antimicrobial Stewardship Interventions in Community Hospitals

This multicenter nonrandomized clinical trial with crossover design study determines the feasibility and results of implementing 2 core stewardship intervention strategies, preauthorization and postprescription audit and review, in community hospitals.

open access has audio
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199369. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9369
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
PEDIATRICS

Effect of Primary Care Parent-Targeted Interventions on Parent-Adolescent Communication About Sexual Behavior and Alcohol Use: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial evaluates the efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of a parent-targeted intervention for parent-adolescent communication about sexual health and alcohol use.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199535. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9535
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
GLOBAL HEALTH

Effect of Bismuth Subsalicylate vs Placebo on Use of Antibiotics Among Adult Outpatients With Diarrhea in Pakistan: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial compares antibiotic use among adult patients in Pakistan receiving bismuth subsalicylate vs placebo for diarrhea.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199441. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9441
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
PULMONARY MEDICINE

Effect of Physical Activity Coaching on Acute Care and Survival Among Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pragmatic Randomized Clinical Trial

This pragmatic randomized clinical trial evaluates the long-term effectiveness of a community-based physical activity coaching intervention on acute care and survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199657. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9657
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
EMERGENCY MEDICINE

Incidence of Pediatric Cannabis Exposure Among Children and Teenagers Aged 0 to 19 Years Before and After Medical Marijuana Legalization in Massachusetts

This cross-sectional study investigates the number of pediatric cannabis exposure cases reported to a regional poison control center before vs after medical marijuana legalization in Massachusetts.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199456. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9456
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
GERIATRICS

Sex-Specific Differences in End-of-Life Burdensome Interventions and Antibiotic Therapy in Nursing Home Residents With Advanced Dementia

This population-based cohort study examines the sex-based variations in burdensome interventions (care transitions, invasive procedures, and use of physical restraints) and antibiotic therapy at the very end of life among nursing home residents with advanced dementia in Ontario, Canada.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199557. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9557
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
PEDIATRICS

Hospital Utilization Among Rural Children Served by Pediatric Neurology Telemedicine Clinics

This cross-sectional study of pediatric neurology patients residing in rural areas compares rates of hospital encounters for patients who had outpatient telemedicine consultations vs those who visited neurology clinics in person.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199364. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9364
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE

Agreement Between Arterial Carbon Dioxide Levels With End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide Levels and Associated Factors in Children Hospitalized With Traumatic Brain Injury

This secondary analysis of a cohort study examines agreement between partial pressure of carbon dioxide, arterial (Paco2) and end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) and associated factors in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI).

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199448. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9448
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
HEALTH INFORMATICS

Association of Electronic Health Record Design and Use Factors With Clinician Stress and Burnout

This survey study determines which electronic health record (EHR) design and use factors are associated with clinician stress and burnout and identifies other sources that contribute to this problem.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199609. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9609
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
RESEARCH LETTER PSYCHIATRY

Firearm Availability and Storage Practices Among Military Personnel Who Have Thought About Suicide

This cross-sectional study examines firearm ownership and storage practices among US military personnel who have experienced thoughts of suicide.

open access has audio
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199160. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9160
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
CORRECTION

Error in Supplement

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1911052. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11052
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
CORRECTION

Error in Figure 3C

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1911247. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11247
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
MEDICAL EDUCATION

Assessment of Patient Nondisclosures to Clinicians of Experiencing Imminent Threats

This survey study assesses how often patients choose not to disclose to their clinicians imminent threats to their well-being (depression, suicidality, abuse, and sexual assault) and examines patient reasons for nondisclosure.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199277. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9277
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
HEALTH POLICY

Development and Testing of Improved Models to Predict Payment Using Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Claims Data

This comparative effectiveness research study assesses whether using present on admission codes and single, rather than grouped, diagnostic codes can enhance Centers for Medicare & Medicaid (CMS) models to predict payment for hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198406. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8406
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Inclusion of Real-Time Hand Hygiene Observation and Feedback in a Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy in Low-Resource Settings

This quality improvement study uses a novel data collection and visualization tool to audit hand hygiene adherence before and after training among health care workers in low-resource settings at 2 hospitals in Nigeria.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199118. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9118
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
ONCOLOGY

Association of Timing of Adjuvant Therapy With Survival in Patients With Resected Stage I to II Pancreatic Cancer

This cohort study evaluates the ideal timing of adjuvant therapy for patients with stage I to II resected pancreatic cancer.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199126. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9126
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
HEALTH POLICY

Association Between Clinical Practice Group Adherence to Quality Measures and Adverse Outcomes Among Adult Patients With Diabetes

This cross-sectional analysis examines the associations among clinical practice group performance on quality measures, including process measures, disease control measures, and utilization-based outcomes, among adults treated for diabetes.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199139. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9139
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
IMAGING

Assessment of Nonradioactive Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomographic Imaging With Conventional Lymphoscintigraphic Imaging for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Melanoma

This cross-sectional study evaluates use of nonradioactive multispectral optoacoustic tomographic vs lymphoscintigraphic imaging for biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with melanoma.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199020. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9020
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
ONCOLOGY

Adverse Events Associated With the Use of Sipuleucel-T Reported to the US Food and Drug Administration’s Adverse Event Reporting System, 2010-2017

This case series uses data from the US Food and Drug Administration’s Adverse Event Reporting System to assess the postmarketing safety profile of sipuleucel-T.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199249. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9249
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
ONCOLOGY

Changes in Age Distribution of Obesity-Associated Cancers

This cross-sectional study examines temporal shifts in age distribution of obesity-associated cancers and non–obesity-associated cancers across race/ethnicity- and sex-specific strata.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199261. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9261
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
RESEARCH LETTER HEALTH INFORMATICS

Assessment of Patient Use of a New Approach to Access Health Record Data Among 12 US Health Systems

This cross-sectional study measures patient use of smartphone applications to download health record data.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199544. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9544
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
RESEARCH LETTER ONCOLOGY

Evolving Practice Patterns in the Use of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer

This survey study compares use of prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer before and after the publication of a phase 3 trial that demonstrated no overall survival benefit for this therapy.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199135. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9135
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
NEPHROLOGY

Association of Extreme Heat Events With Hospital Admission or Mortality Among Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease

This study examines the association of extreme heat events in 3 northeastern US cities with hospital admission and mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198904. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8904
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
PSYCHIATRY

Longitudinal Association of Depression Symptoms With Cognition and Cortical Amyloid Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

This cohort study investigates the longitudinal association between depressive symptoms, cognition, and cortical amyloid in unimpaired community-dwelling older adults in the Harvard Aging Brain Study.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198964. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8964
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
HEALTH POLICY

Trends in Medical Aid in Dying in Oregon and Washington

This cohort study evaluates and compares patterns of the use of medical aid in dying in Oregon and Washington State.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198648. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8648
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
HEALTH POLICY

Trends in the Use of Cardiac Imaging for Patients With Heart Failure in Canada

This cross-sectional study investigates temporal trends in the use and costs of cardiac imaging for patients with heart failure in Canada and examines the association between the institution of an accreditation program and the use of echocardiography.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198766. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8766
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
ONCOLOGY

Assessment of Machine Learning of Breast Pathology Structures for Automated Differentiation of Breast Cancer and High-Risk Proliferative Lesions

This diagnostic study evaluates computer vision methods to assist pathologists in diagnosing breast biopsy samples, from benign to invasive cancer.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198777. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8777
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
CARDIOLOGY

Cardiovascular Adverse Events Associated With BRAF and MEK Inhibitors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis determines the association of BRAF and MEK inhibitor treatment with cardiovascular adverse events in patients with melanoma compared with BRAF inhibitor monotherapy.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198890. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8890
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
DIABETES AND ENDOCRINOLOGY

Comparison of Pheochromocytoma-Specific Morbidity and Mortality Among Adults With Bilateral Pheochromocytomas Undergoing Total Adrenalectomy vs Cortical-Sparing Adrenalectomy

This cohort study compares outcomes associated with cortical-sparing adrenalectomy vs total adrenalectomy for patients with bilateral pheochromocytomas.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198898. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8898
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
PEDIATRICS

Association Between Age at Puberty and Bone Accrual From 10 to 25 Years of Age

This cohort study of healthy individuals in England who underwent repeated bone density scans from ages 10 to 25 years describes the association between the timing of puberty and bone mineral density.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198918. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8918
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
UROLOGY

Variation in Practice Patterns and Reimbursements Between Female and Male Urologists for Medicare Beneficiaries

This cohort study uses the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Provider Payments database to identify whether sex-based discrepancies exist in clinical practice, reimbursement payments, and geographic distributions in the urological specialty.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198956. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8956
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
ORTHOPEDICS

Operative vs Nonoperative Treatment for Atraumatic Rotator Cuff Tears: A Trial Protocol for the Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Pragmatic Randomized Clinical Trial

This is a trial protocol for the Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff trial, an ongoing randomized clinical trial to examine the effectiveness of operative vs nonoperative treatment for atraumatic rotator cuff tears, with patient-reported Shoulder Pain and Disability Index score as the primary outcome.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199050. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9050
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
PEDIATRICS

Efficacy of a Technology-Enhanced Community Health Nursing Intervention vs Standard of Care for Female Adolescents and Young Adults With Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial examines the efficacy of a technology-enhanced community health nursing intervention for improving pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) self-management and longitudinal prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198652. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8652
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
GERIATRICS

Effect of Telephone-Delivered Collaborative Goal Setting and Behavioral Activation vs Enhanced Usual Care for Depression Among Adults With Uncontrolled Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial compares the effectiveness of telephone-delivered collaborative goal setting and behavioral activation vs enhanced usual care for depression symptoms among US veterans with uncontrolled diabetes.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198634. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8634
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
HEALTH INFORMATICS

Primary Care Practices’ Ability to Report Electronic Clinical Quality Measures in the EvidenceNOW Southwest Initiative to Improve Heart Health

This quality improvement study evaluates time to reporting electronic clinical quality measures for US primary care practices.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198569. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8569
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
IMAGING

Comparison of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Targeted Biopsy With Systematic Biopsy Alone for the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates whether magnetic resonance imaging combined with targeted biopsy is associated with improved detection of clinically significant prostate cancer compared with transrectal ultrasonography–guided systematic prostate biopsy alone.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198427. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8427
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
HEALTH POLICY

Comparison of 3 Safety-Net Hospital Definitions and Association With Hospital Characteristics

This cross-sectional study examines characteristics of safety-net hospitals as classified under 3 common definitions based on Medicare Disproportionate Share Hospital payments, Medicaid and uninsured caseload, and uncompensated care costs.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198577. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8577
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
EMERGENCY MEDICINE

Identification of Emergency Care–Sensitive Conditions and Characteristics of Emergency Department Utilization

This cross-sectional study identifies a set of emergency care–sensitive conditions to provide benchmark US national estimates of acute care utilization for these conditions.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198642. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8642
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE

Long-term Host Immune Response Trajectories Among Hospitalized Patients With Sepsis

This multicenter cohort study of adults who have survived hospitalization for sepsis assesses whether abnormalities in the host immune response during hospitalization for sepsis persist after discharge.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198686. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8686
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
PULMONARY MEDICINE

Development and Performance of the Pulmonary Embolism Result Forecast Model (PERFORM) for Computed Tomography Clinical Decision Support

This diagnostic study evaluates whether a machine learning model, the Pulmonary Embolism Result Forecast Model (PERFORM), can compute a patient-specific risk score for pulmonary embolism as clinical decision support for computed tomography.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198719. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8719
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
PSYCHIATRY

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mortality Risk in Taiwan

This nationwide cohort study in Taiwan evaluates whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with higher risk of mortality from all causes, suicide, unintentional injury, homicide, and natural causes.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198714. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8714
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
GENETICS AND GENOMICS

Changes in Bone Mineral Density After Prophylactic Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy in Carriers of a BRCA Mutation

This cohort study evaluates the association of prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with bone mineral density loss among women with a BRCA mutation.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198420. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8420
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
ALLERGY

Prevalence and Severity of Sesame Allergy in the United States

This cross-sectional, population-based study provides current estimates of the prevalence, severity, distribution, and clinical characteristics of sesame allergy in US adults and children.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199144. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9144
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY

Effect of First-line S-1 Plus Oxaliplatin With or Without Ramucirumab Followed by Paclitaxel Plus Ramucirumab on Advanced Gastric Cancer in East Asia: The Phase 2 RAINSTORM Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial investigates the efficacy and safety of adding ramucirumab to first-line therapy with S-1 and oxaliplatin among East Asian adults with advanced gastric cancer.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198243. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8243
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
PEDIATRICS

Referral for Ophthalmology Evaluation and Visual Sequelae in Children With Primary Brain Tumors

This cohort study investigates the rate of ophthalmology referral, the prevalence of visual sequelae, and the association between tumor characteristics and ophthalmologic diagnoses in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198273. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8273
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
PUBLIC HEALTH

Rates of Physician Coprescribing of Opioids and Benzodiazepines After the Release of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines in 2016

This cohort study evaluates whether the 2016 release of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for opioid prescribing was associated with changes in the rates of opioid and benzodiazepine coprescription among commercially insured patients and US Medicare Advantage beneficiaries.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198325. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8325
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
MEDICAL EDUCATION

Machine Learning Identification of Surgical and Operative Factors Associated With Surgical Expertise in Virtual Reality Simulation

This case series study identifies surgical and operative factors selected by a machine learning algorithm to classify individuals by level of expertise in a virtual reality surgical procedure.

open access has multimedia
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198363. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8363
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
SUBSTANCE USE AND ADDICTION

Identifying Smoking Environments From Images of Daily Life With Deep Learning

This cross-sectional study assesses the utility of deep learning for identifying environments and objects associated with smoking.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e197939. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.7939
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
CARDIOLOGY

Characteristics of the Quality Improvement Content of Cardiac Catheterization Peer Reviews in the Veterans Affairs Clinical Assessment, Reporting, and Tracking Program

This quality improvement study characterizes the content of cardiac catheterization peer reviews in the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Clinical Assessment, Reporting, and Tracking (CART) program.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198393. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8393
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
GERIATRICS

Global Incidence of Frailty and Prefrailty Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis estimates the global incidence of frailty and prefrailty among community-dwelling adults 60 years or older.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198398. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8398
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
PSYCHIATRY

Association of Primary Care Continuity With Outcomes Following Transition to Adult Care for Adolescents With Severe Mental Illness

This population-based cohort study assesses the association between primary care continuity from pediatric to adult health care services during adolescence and outcomes in young adulthood for patients with severe mental illness in Ontario, Canada.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198415. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8415
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
RESEARCH LETTER MEDICAL EDUCATION

Gender Disparities in Work and Parental Status Among Early Career Physicians

This survey study examines how gender disparities are associated with attrition from the workforce and how family considerations are associated with decisions about how much to work.

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198340. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8340
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
CORRECTION

Error in Abstract, Text, and Table

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199999. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9999
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
JAMA Network Open Masthead

JAMA Network Open

open access
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198561. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8561
Abstract Full Text
×