Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below.
Identify all potential conflicts of interest that might be relevant to your comment.
Conflicts of interest comprise financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including but not limited to employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speaker's bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued.
Err on the side of full disclosure.
If you have no conflicts of interest, check "No potential conflicts of interest" in the box below. The information will be posted with your response.
Not all submitted comments are published. Please see our commenting policy for details.
Goddard ET, Bassale S, Schedin T, et al. Association Between Postpartum Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Metastasis and the Clinical Features Underlying Risk. JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(1):e186997. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.6997
Is there an increased risk for metastasis of breast cancers that are diagnosed in young women post partum that extends beyond 5 years from the last childbirth, and what association do standard clinical prognostic factors have with metastatic risk in these young women when categorized by parity?
In a cohort study of 701 women 45 years or younger with breast cancer, those with stage I or II cancer diagnosed up to 10 years post partum had an increased risk for distant metastasis, with both estrogen receptor–positive and estrogen receptor–negative disease significantly affected.
Postpartum status may be a prognostic indicator in young women with breast cancer and should be routinely identified, as up to 45% of women 45 years or younger with breast cancer fall into this category and could be at increased risk for metastasis.
In women 45 years or younger, breast cancer diagnosis after childbirth increases the risk for metastasis and death, yet limited data exist to define this window of risk and associated prognostic factors.
To assess the window of elevated risk for metastasis following a postpartum breast cancer (PPBC) diagnosis and whether clinical prognostic factors are associated with the increased risk.
Design, Setting, and Participants
This multicenter cohort study conducted using cases from the Colorado Young Women’s Breast Cancer Cohort diagnosed between January 1, 1981, and December 31, 2014, included 701 women 45 years or younger with stage I to III invasive breast cancer for whom parity data, including time of last childbirth, were available. Data analysis was conducted from July 1 to September 30, 2017. This study involved a tertiary care academic hospital–based breast center and its regional affiliates with cases from the greater Rocky Mountain region.
Primary exposures were prior childbirth or no childbirth, time between most recent childbirth and breast cancer diagnosis, and time between breast cancer diagnosis and metastasis.
Main Outcomes and Measures
The primary outcome was distant metastasis–free survival.
A total of 701 women 45 years or younger from the greater Rocky Mountain states region were included in the analysis; mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 37.9 (5.1) years. Breast cancer diagnosis within 10 years after parturition was associated with elevated risk for metastasis, particularly in women with stage I or II disease. In addition, women with PPBC diagnosed within 10 years of a completed pregnancy that was estrogen receptor–positive showed distant metastasis–free survival similar to that of nulliparous patients with estrogen receptor–negative cancer, and women with estrogen receptor–negative PPBC had further reduced metastasis-free survival. Moreover, women with PPBC had increased lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement. In addition, tumor-associated Ki67 positivity identified 129 patients with luminal B cancer in the cohort that, independent of parity status, had poorer prognosis compared with patients with luminal A cancer, although it did not reach statistical significance.
Conclusions and Relevance
Diagnosis of PPBC within 10 years post partum appears to be associated with an increased risk for metastasis. This increased risk was highest in stages I and II cancer at diagnosis and present in both patients with estrogen receptor–positive and estrogen receptor–negative cancer, persisting in estrogen receptor–positive cases for up to 15 years after diagnosis. Postpartum breast cancer diagnoses were not associated with increased Ki67 index but were associated with increased lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement compared with breast cancer in nulliparous patients.
Create a personal account or sign in to: