Availability of Grocery Delivery to Food Deserts in States Participating in the Online Purchase Pilot | Health Disparities | JAMA Network Open | JAMA Network
[Skip to Navigation]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
Mabli  J; Mathematica Research.  SNAP participation, food security, and geographic access to food. https://fns-prod.azureedge.net/sites/default/files/SNAPFS_FoodAccess.pdf. Accessed October 22, 2019.
US Department of Agriculture.  Food Access Research Atlas. https://www.ers.usda.gov/data-products/food-access-research-atlas/. Accessed October 22, 2019.
Office of Policy Development and Research.  HUD USPS ZIP Code Crosswalk Files. https://www.huduser.gov/portal/datasets/usps_crosswalk.html. Accessed October 22, 2019.
Lewis  M, Singh  V, Fay  S.  An empirical study of the impact of nonlinear shipping and handling fees on purchase incidence and expenditure decisions.  Mark Sci. 2006;25(1):51-64. doi:10.1287/mksc.1050.0150Google ScholarCrossref
Jilcott Pitts  SB, Ng  SW, Blitstein  JL, Gustafson  A, Niculescu  M.  Online grocery shopping: promise and pitfalls for healthier food and beverage purchases.  Public Health Nutr. 2018;21(18):3360-3376. doi:10.1017/S1368980018002409PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
Mozaffarian  D, Liu  J, Sy  S,  et al.  Cost-effectiveness of financial incentives and disincentives for improving food purchases and health through the US Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): a microsimulation study.  PLoS Med. 2018;15(10):e1002661. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002661PubMedGoogle Scholar
Limit 200 characters
Limit 25 characters
Conflicts of Interest Disclosure

Identify all potential conflicts of interest that might be relevant to your comment.

Conflicts of interest comprise financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including but not limited to employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speaker's bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued.

Err on the side of full disclosure.

If you have no conflicts of interest, check "No potential conflicts of interest" in the box below. The information will be posted with your response.

Not all submitted comments are published. Please see our commenting policy for details.

Limit 140 characters
Limit 3600 characters or approximately 600 words
    Research Letter
    Health Policy
    December 2, 2019

    Availability of Grocery Delivery to Food Deserts in States Participating in the Online Purchase Pilot

    Author Affiliations
    • 1National Clinician Scholars Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
    • 2Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
    • 3Department of Emergency Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
    • 4Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts
    • 5Yale School of Nursing, Yale University, Orange, Connecticut
    • 6Section of General Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
    • 7Department of Health Policy and Management, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut
    • 8Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale-New Haven Health System, New Haven, Connecticut
    JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(12):e1916444. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.16444

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides federally funded nutritional support to qualifying low-income persons.1 To increase SNAP beneficiaries’ access to grocers, the 2014 Farm Bill included an Online Purchase Pilot (OPP) that allows beneficiaries in 8 states to use SNAP to purchase groceries online. The 2018 Farm Bill extends this benefit nationwide after OPP completion. Delivery of online-purchased groceries offers an opportunity to expand food access where it is otherwise limited. However, to our knowledge, there are no studies assessing the availability of grocery delivery in USDA-designated food deserts, defined as low-income communities with limited vehicular access and grocer availability. To inform on the potential effect of delivery in these areas, we quantified the proportion of both rural and urban USDA-designated food deserts currently serviceable by online grocery purchase and delivery in the 8 OPP states.