[Skip to Content]
Access to paid content on this site is currently suspended due to excessive activity being detected from your IP address 34.238.248.103. Please contact the publisher to request reinstatement.
[Skip to Content Landing]
1.
Association of American Medical Colleges. Women were majority of U.S. medical school applicants in 2018. Published December 3, 2018. Accessed December 26, 2019. https://www.aamc.org/news-insights/press-releases/women-were-majority-us-medical-school-applicants-2018
2.
Lautenberger  D, Raezer  C, Bunton  SA. The underrepresentation of women in leadership positions at U.S. medical schools. Association of American Medical Colleges. Published February 2015. Accessed January 22, 2020. https://www.aamc.org/system/files/reports/1/february2015theunderrepresentationofwomeninleadershippositionsa.pdf
3.
Walker  LE, Sadosty  AT, Colletti  JE, Goyal  DG, Sunga  KL, Hayes  SN.  Gender distribution among American Board of Medical Specialties boards of directors.   Mayo Clin Proc. 2016;91(11):1590-1593. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2016.08.007PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
4.
Kirch  DG. Advancing women in academic medicine: Progress, challenges, and hope for the future. Association of American Medical Colleges. Published May 28, 2019. Accessed December 26, 2019. https://www.aamc.org/news-insights/advancing-women-academic-medicine-progress-challenges-and-hope-future
5.
Travis  EL. Academic medicine needs more women leaders. Association of American Medical Colleges. Published January 15, 2018. Accessed December 26, 2019. https://www.aamc.org/news-insights/insights/academic-medicine-needs-more-women-leaders
6.
Jena  AB, Khullar  D, Ho  O, Olenski  AR, Blumenthal  DM.  Sex differences in academic rank in US medical schools in 2014.   JAMA. 2015;314(11):1149-1158. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.10680PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
7.
Laver  KE, Prichard  IJ, Cations  M, Osenk  I, Govin  K, Coveney  JD.  A systematic review of interventions to support the careers of women in academic medicine and other disciplines.   BMJ Open. 2018;8(3):e020380. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-020380PubMedGoogle Scholar
8.
Carr  PL, Raj  A, Kaplan  SE, Terrin  N, Breeze  JL, Freund  KM.  Gender differences in academic medicine: retention, rank, and leadership comparisons from the National Faculty Survey.   Acad Med. 2018;93(11):1694-1699. doi:10.1097/ACM.0000000000002146PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
9.
Association of American Medical Colleges. Average full-time faculty promotions by medical school, rank, and sex, academic years 2013–2014 through 2016–2017. Accessed December 26, 2019. https://www.medschool.umaryland.edu/media/SOM/About-Us/docs/Culture-Transformation/AAMC-promotions-at-medical-schools-by-rank.pdf
10.
Jagsi  R, DeCastro  R, Griffith  KA,  et al.  Similarities and differences in the career trajectories of male and female career development award recipients.   Acad Med. 2011;86(11):1415-1421. doi:10.1097/ACM.0b013e3182305aa6PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
11.
Jena  AB, Olenski  AR, Blumenthal  DM.  Sex differences in physician salary in US public medical schools.   JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(9):1294-1304. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.3284PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
12.
Paturel  A. Closing the gender pay gap in medicine. Association of American Medical Colleges. Published April 16, 2019. Accessed December 26, 2019. https://www.aamc.org/news-insights/closing-gender-pay-gap-medicine
13.
Dyrbye  LN, Freischlag  J, Kaups  KL,  et al.  Work-home conflicts have a substantial impact on career decisions that affect the adequacy of the surgical workforce.   Arch Surg. 2012;147(10):933-939. doi:10.1001/archsurg.2012.835PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
14.
Mwakyanjala  EJ, Cowart  JB, Hayes  SN, Blair  JE, Maniaci  MJ.  Pregnancy and parenting during cardiology fellowship.   J Am Heart Assoc. 2019;8(14):e012137. doi:10.1161/JAHA.119.012137PubMedGoogle Scholar
15.
Carr  PL, Ash  AS, Friedman  RH,  et al.  Faculty perceptions of gender discrimination and sexual harassment in academic medicine.   Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(11):889-896. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-132-11-200006060-00007PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
16.
Hay  K, McDougal  L, Percival  V,  et al; Gender Equality, Norms, and Health Steering Committee.  Disrupting gender norms in health systems: making the case for change.   Lancet. 2019;393(10190):2535-2549. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30648-8PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
17.
West  CP, Dyrbye  LN, Shanafelt  TD.  Physician burnout: contributors, consequences and solutions.   J Intern Med. 2018;283(6):516-529. doi:10.1111/joim.12752PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
18.
Albert  MA.  #Me_Who anatomy of scholastic, leadership, and social isolation of underrepresented minority women in academic medicine.   Circulation. 2018;138(5):451-454. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.118.035057PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
19.
Hayes  SN, Noseworthy  JH, Farrugia  G.  A structured compensation plan results in equitable physician compensation: a single-center analysis.   Mayo Clin Proc. 2020;95(1):35-43. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2019.09.022PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
20.
Riano  NS, Linos  E, Accurso  EC,  et al.  Paid family and childbearing leave policies at top US medical schools.   JAMA. 2018;319(6):611-614. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.19519PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
21.
Chang  S, Morahan  PS, Magrane  D,  et al.  Retaining faculty in academic medicine: the impact of career development programs for women.   J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2016;25(7):687-696. doi:10.1089/jwh.2015.5608PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
22.
Duma  N, Durani  U, Woods  CB,  et al.  Evaluating unconscious bias: speaker introductions at an international oncology conference.   J Clin Oncol. 2019;37(36):3538-3545. doi:10.1200/JCO.19.01608PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
23.
Files  JA, Mayer  AP, Ko  MG,  et al.  Speaker introductions at internal medicine grand rounds: forms of address reveal gender bias.   J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2017;26(5):413-419. doi:10.1089/jwh.2016.6044PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
24.
Rao  AD, Nicholas  SE, Kachniarz  B,  et al.  Association of a simulated institutional gender equity initiative with gender-based disparities in medical school faculty salaries and promotions.   JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(8):e186054. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.6054PubMedGoogle Scholar
25.
DeFilippis  EM, Lau  ES, Wei  J, Hayes  SN, Wood  MJ.  Where are the women in academic cardiology?   Lancet. 2018;392(10160):2152-2153. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32618-7PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
26.
Sambunjak  D, Straus  SE, Marusić  A.  Mentoring in academic medicine: a systematic review.   JAMA. 2006;296(9):1103-1115. doi:10.1001/jama.296.9.1103PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
27.
Patton  EW, Griffith  KA, Jones  RD, Stewart  A, Ubel  PA, Jagsi  R.  Differences in mentor-mentee sponsorship in male vs female recipients of National Institutes of Health grants.   JAMA Intern Med. 2017;177(4):580-582. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.9391PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
28.
Sharma  G, Sarma  AA, Walsh  MN,  et al; American College of Cardiology Women in Cardiology Leadership Council and Diversity and Inclusion Task Force.  10 recommendations to enhance recruitment, retention, and career advancement of women cardiologists.   J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019;74(14):1839-1842. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2019.08.016PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
29.
Mayo Clinic News Center. Mayo joins supporters of TIME’S UP Healthcare to end sexual harassment, gender inequity. Published March 1, 2019. Accessed June 23, 2020. https://newsnetwork.mayoclinic.org/discussion/mayo-joins-supporters-of-times-up-healthcare-to-end-sexual-harassment-gender-inequity/
30.
Choo  EK, Byington  CL, Johnson  NL, Jagsi  R.  From #MeToo to #TimesUp in health care: can a culture of accountability end inequity and harassment?   Lancet. 2019;393(10171):499-502. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30251-XPubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
31.
Grimm  LJ, Redmond  RA, Campbell  JC, Rosette  AS.  Gender and racial bias in radiology residency letters of recommendation.   J Am Coll Radiol. 2020;17(1 Pt A):64-71. doi:10.1016/j.jacr.2019.08.008PubMedGoogle ScholarCrossref
32.
Shook  E, Sweet  J. When she rises, we all rise: getting to equal 2018: creating a culture where everyone thrives. Accenture. Accessed December 26, 2019. https://www.accenture.com/_acnmedia/pdf-73/accenture-when-she-rises-we-all-rise.pdf
Limit 200 characters
Limit 25 characters
Conflicts of Interest Disclosure

Identify all potential conflicts of interest that might be relevant to your comment.

Conflicts of interest comprise financial interests, activities, and relationships within the past 3 years including but not limited to employment, affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, honoraria or payment, speaker's bureaus, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, royalties, donation of medical equipment, or patents planned, pending, or issued.

Err on the side of full disclosure.

If you have no conflicts of interest, check "No potential conflicts of interest" in the box below. The information will be posted with your response.

Not all submitted comments are published. Please see our commenting policy for details.

Limit 140 characters
Limit 3600 characters or approximately 600 words
    Views 5,189
    Citations 0
    Original Investigation
    Medical Education
    July 22, 2020

    A Qualitative Analysis of Career Advice Given to Women Leaders in an Academic Medical Center

    Author Affiliations
    • 1Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota
    JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(7):e2011292. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.11292
    Key Points español 中文 (chinese)

    Question  What advice regarding the workplace and management strategies are perceived as useful to women leaders in academic medicine?

    Findings  In this qualitative study based on responses from 40 women leaders at the Mayo Clinic, we found that advice could be grouped into 4 categories: leadership styles are perceived as having gendered qualities, a strategic process is required to gain leadership skills, conflicts between personal life and the workplace will occur and should not be a deterrent, and leadership pathways for women involve inevitable hurdles.

    Meaning  The findings of this qualitative study suggest that a long-term view of attaining gender equity for women leaders at academic medical centers will require a combination of programs, including disruptive institutional initiatives and grassroots efforts; 1 approach involves highlighting and disseminating career advice received by female leaders, particularly advice that others have found helpful.

    Abstract

    Importance  Women in academic medicine continue to face systemic obstacles on their paths to leadership. In addition to improving recruitment and advancement opportunities, academic medical centers must facilitate a cultural shift that ensures sustained leadership pathways for women.

    Objective  To better understand, from the perspective of women leaders, the workplace and cultural changes that need to take place in academic medicine to increase inclusivity and gender equity.

    Design, Setting, and Participants  This qualitative study of 40 women physicians and administrators with senior leadership roles at Mayo Clinic, a nonprofit academic medical center and research institution with campuses in Arizona, Florida, and Minnesota, examined participants’ responses to a question regarding their paths to leadership. Replies were submitted between November and December 2018.

    Main Outcomes and Measures  Women were asked to describe career advice (positive or negative) they had received that was the hardest to accept but, in retrospect, turned out to be valuable.

    Results  Of 40 participants, 25 (63%) were physicians and 15 (37%) were administrators at Mayo Clinic; 27 (68%) had achieved the role of chair or the administrative equivalent. Career experience ranged from 6 to 40 years. Of the 40 women leaders queried, 38 (95%) provided written responses, which were separated into the 4 following categories: leadership styles are perceived as having gendered qualities, attaining leadership skills involves a strategic learning process, collisions between personal life and the workplace should not deter individuals from pursuing leadership roles, and leadership pathways for women involved hurdles. These categories represented a roadmap illuminating perceptions about the academic medical workplace.

    Conclusions and Relevance  These findings link generalizable principles to help to drive new strategies for gender parity. Shifting the culture of academic medicine begins with fully understanding impediments to women’s advancement. The advice women leaders recounted offered a roadmap as well as a glimpse of the extra effort required for women to succeed amid some of the system’s limitations and obstacles. A more complete understanding of gender biases may help to shape future programs to expand inclusivity and establish sustained leadership paths for women.

    ×