This cohort study uses Taiwan National Health Insurance database data to evaluate the incidence of ischemic stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, and all-cause mortality among patients with atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter stratified by CHA2DS2-VASc score.
This study uses census block data in Arkansas to investigate spatial patterns in childhood obesity between the 2003-2004 and 2014-2015 academic years and to distinguish obesity risk attributable to social contagion vs neighborhood contextual factors.
This study characterizes environmental sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR) reporting by US health care organizations (HCOs) named by Fortune 500, Forbes, and other financial sources as the largest US HCOs in 2015 or 2016 and compares CSR reporting trends among those HCOs with reporting in other economic sectors.
This qualitative analysis of health care student and professional responses to questions about inclusion and respect in respondents’ hospitals and health schools describes factors influencing their perceptions and strategies to improve inclusion and retain a diverse health care workforce.
This study describes the development and prognostic accuracy of 5 machine learning models designed to predict incident delirium in newly hospitalized patients without known cognitive impairment using clinical variables derived from the patients’ electronic health record (EHR).
This case-control study compares disease-free and overall survival among patients with Barrett high-grade dysplasia or esophageal adenocarcinoma with vs without underlying human papillomavirus (HPV) infection demonstrated on biopsy.
This cross-sectional analysis characterizes the age of clinical trial data at the time of publication in journals with a high impact factor and examines the time from final data collection to publication.
This quality improvement study estimates flows of total development assistance for adolescent health and per-adolescent development assistance for adolescent health and assesses its distribution by donors, regions, and countries and the leading causes of burden of disease in 132 developing countries.
This cohort study identifies risk factors associated with major cardiovascular events within 1 year of acute myocardial infarction in Chinese patients and describes the development and evaluation of a risk model to predict such events.
This cohort study uses data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 database to compare rates of survival among women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) who were treated with radiotherapy after lumpectomy vs lumpectomy or mastectomy alone.
This cohort study determines the frequency of daily chest radiograph use for adult patients receiving mechanical ventilation in the United States, assesses variability across hospitals, and evaluates whether use has decreased over time.
This cross-sectional analysis of US Medicaid files from 29 states investigates the prevalence of and risk factors associated with concurrent stimulant and opioid use among Medicaid-enrolled adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
This randomized clinical trial compares the efficacy of preoperative hypnosis vs usual care for reducing postoperative breast pain in patients undergoing breast cancer tumor removal with or without limited axillary node dissection.
This cohort study compares receipt of National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guideline–discordant prostate cancer imaging (radionuclide, CT, or MRI) to stage incident prostate cancer among men being treated in the Veterans Health Administration system vs those receiving Medicare-covered services vs a combination of the two.
This population-based cohort study uses AHRQ National Readmission Database data to characterize trends in overall, planned, and potentially preventable 30-day hospital readmission rates among patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke between 2010 and September 2015.
This secondary analysis of a cluster randomized clinical trial evaluates whether an HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk-reduction intervention shown to reduce sexual risk behavior and STD prevalence among South African adolescents also reduced the perpetration and experience of forced sex.
This pooled cohort study compares overall, progression-free, and cancer-specific survival of patients living in rural vs urban settings who were enrolled in phase 2 and 3 SWOG treatment trials between 1986 and 2012.
This population-based cross-sectional study of 1.7 million Chinese adults assesses the association between body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and hypertension across subgroups of age, sex, income, race, smoking, stroke, and more.
This systematic review and meta-analysis examines 20 studies including 8800 patients with ascending aortic aneurysm (AsAA) to determine the growth rate of aneurysms; the risk of all-cause mortality, aortic dissection, and aortic rupture; and the incidence of elective surgery in AsAA with tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) or bicuspid aortic valve (BAV).
This cohort study uses data from the HCUP Project State Inpatient Databases to compare the mean payer mix proportions and in-hospital mortality rates of 17 expansion states vs 13 nonexpansion states for the 4 years preceding and the year after the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion.
This nonrandomized clinical trial of daily cigarette smokers evaluates the association of use of reduced nicotine content cigarettes with smoking behaviors and biomarkers of exposure by smokers with fast vs slow nicotine metabolism.
This cross-sectional, ecological study examines the age at onset and seasonal distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis incidence among children in China vaccinated with the Lanzhou lamb rotavirus vaccine vs those ineligible for vaccination.
This cohort study examines long-term outcomes for patients with isolated local recurrence or isolated regional recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for early-stage non–small cell lung cancer with the aim of informing treatment decision making.
This diagnostic study of hospitalized veterans uses the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) framework and delirium clinical practice guidelines to compare the performance of prediction rules for prevalent delirium among older adults at hospital admission.
This nested case-control study explores the association of impaired CYP2D6 genotype and metabolic phenotype activity with failure of high-dose primaquine treatment for Plasmodium vivax malaria relapse in Indonesian men.
This multicenter diagnostic study determines the intermodality variability of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) measured by echocardiography, gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction.
This population-based cohort study with a nested sibling comparison examines whether Swedish individuals with autism spectrum disorders are more likely to be diagnosed as having depression in adulthood than the general population and their nonautistic siblings and investigates whether these risks differ by the presence or absence of intellectual disability.
This survey study uses data from the National Health Interview Survey to examine changes in the prevalence of diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in US children and adolescents over a 20-year period, from 1997 to 2016.
This cohort study from the Diabetes Prevention Program trial and Outcomes Study determines the extent to which perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances are associated with increases in body weight and size and evaluates whether a lifestyle intervention modifies this association.
This cross-sectional modeling study assesses features in the built environment and provides associations with obesity prevalence at the census tract level for 6 US cities.
This cohort study describes the clinical characteristics and identifies risk factors for complications and death among a large sample of French patients with Q fever.
This pharmacoepidemiology study compares changes in prescriptions for opioid pain relievers and for buprenorphine with naloxone in 5 states that did vs did not expand Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2014.
This survey study evaluates the association of Medicaid expansion coverage with improved access to birth control and family planning services among women of reproductive age recently enrolled in the Healthy Michigan Plan.
This systematic review and meta-analysis examines 96 studies of substandard and falsified medicines in low- and middle-income countries to determine the prevalence and estimated economic burden of these medicines.
This population-based case-control study of Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study participants uses sex-specific genome-wide association study (GWAS) and polygenic risk score (PRS) analyses to examine sex differences in genetic associations with longevity by comparing participants older than 100 years with a control group of participants aged 40 to 64 years.
This multinational cohort study examines the association of second-line treatment (sulfonylureas, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors [DPP-4], or thiazolidinediones) for type 2 diabetes after initial therapy with metformin with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels.
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