This follow-up of a cluster randomized clinical trial of adults with uncontrolled hypertension examines the durability of the effect of a home blood pressure telemonitoring and pharmacist management intervention on blood pressure through 54 months of follow-up and compares blood pressure measurements performed in the research clinic vs usual care.
This registry-based multicenter cohort study examines long-term survival after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) in real-world practice using a novel instrumental variable method designed for time-to-event outcomes compared with traditional risk-adjustment models used in observational studies for survival analyses.
This population-based cohort study investigates the association between adolescent cognitive ability and later-in-life Medicare-recorded Alzheimer disease and related disorders and explores the association seperately in men and women.
This quality improvement study compares differences in influenza vaccination rates by clinic appointment time and evaluates whether an active choice intervention in the electronic health record is associated with changes in vaccination rates.
This randomized clinical trial compares the effect of long-term nicotine replacement therapy vs standard smoking cessation on exposure to cigarette smoke, harm related to smoking, and smoking cessation among smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
This longitudinal cohort study compares trajectories of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) increase, considered a measure of glycemic control, among patients younger than 20 years of age with type 1 diabetes according to their self-reported race/ethnicity using data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study.
This cohort study uses data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study to examine whether body mass index (BMI) is associated with subsequent disability in activities of daily living in Chinese adults 80 years of age or older.
This cohort study uses Swedish national databases to assess major bleeding and venous thromboembolism (VTE) following hip and knee replacement surgical procedures in patients with and without a family history of VTE.
This registry-based cohort study using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database investigates the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated second primary cancers among survivors of HPV-associated index cancers and tests the hypothesis that the risk of HPV-associated second primary cancer has increased over the last 4 decades.
This model-based economic evaluation examines the cost-effectiveness of financial incentives for patients and physicians in controlling low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels.
This cohort study uses Medicare claims data to compare performance within and between US hospitals concerning the association of race and neighborhood income with patient outcomes after hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure, and pneumonia.
This randomized clinical trial compares the extent of treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in women with locally advanced cervical cancer who have staging using fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission–computed tomography along with conventional staging with CT of the abdomen and pelvis vs those who have staging with CT alone.
This cross-sectional study uses US county-level well-being data from the Gallup-Sharecare Well-Being Index and annual Medicare fee-for-service spending per beneficiary to assess whether the overall well-being of a population is associated with the health care spending for those 65 years or older.
This cross-sectional study investigates the ascertainment of pathogenic and likely pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants among US adults enrolled in the MyCode Community Health Initiative.
This cross-sectional study examines all outpatient emergency department (ED) visits and inpatient admissions for injuries following legal interventions by police and other law enforcement agents and trends in injury rates and severity and association with disparities by race and ethnicity of the treated patients.
This comparative cross-sectional study describes the practices of the Comprehensive Primary Care Plus medical home program model and compares hospital service areas with and without these practices using data from the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.
This cohort study examines the association between prenatal exposure to ambient and traffic-related air pollution and newborn total thyroxine concentrations and investigates critical gestational windows of exposure during pregnancies.
This cohort study examines the risk for cardiovascular disease among women in Denmark who have given birth to children with major congenital anomalies.
This systematic review and meta-analysis of 19 clinical trials evaluates whether improvement in anxiety symptoms is associated with anxiolytic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) treatment compared with control treatments in both placebo-controlled and non–placebo-controlled trials.
This population-based cohort study assesses the risks associated with tocolysis as measured by death and intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants and compares the risks between calcium channel blockers and atosiban.
This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the dose-response association between levels of physical activity and the risk of Parkinson disease by examining data from 8 studies including more than half a million participants.
This cluster randomized trial compares the effect of the Head Computed Tomography Choice decision aid with usual care in parents of children with minor head trauma at intermediate risk for clinically important traumatic brain injuries who are treated in emergency departments.
This study of birth cohorts from the United States and Belarus examines whether weight for length or body mass index more accurately estimates future cardiometabolic outcomes in children younger than 2 years.
This cohort study compares the prevalence of family history of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients of European, African, and Hispanic/Latino descent with early-onset AF vs non–early-onset AF.
This randomized clinical trial assesses the effects of a positive psychological intervention on pain and functional difficulty vs a control program in veterans with knee osteoarthritis and evaluates whether this management varies by race.
This cohort study compares survival to discharge after in-hospital cardiac arrest with a first documented shockable rhythm between children who were treated with defibrillation 2 minutes or less after arrest vs more than 2 minutes after arrest using data from the American Heart Association’s Get With The Guidelines–Resuscitation national registry.
This diagnostic study evaluates an artificial intelligence (AI)–based system for diagnosing diabetic retinopathy using retinal images in a primary care setting vs the gold standard of diagnosis by an ophthalmologist.
This subanalysis of the Pediatric Early vs Late Parenteral Nutrition in Intensive Care Unit (PEPaNIC) randomized clinical trial assesses the outcome effects of withholding parenteral nutrition for 1 week vs initiation within 24 hours in undernourished critically ill children.
This cohort study quantifies the association of neighborhood socioeconomic status with adverse outcomes and the value of neighborhood socioeconomic status in predicting the risk of adverse outcomes in electronic health record (EHR)–based risk models.
This qualitative study characterizes how black, Hispanic, and Native American resident physicians experience race/ethnicity in the workplace during their graduate medical education and training.
This cross-sectional survey study investigates the prevalence, patterns, and sociodemographic correlates of cannabis product use and polyuse by administration methods (combustible, vaporized, and edible) among a sample of adolescents in 10th grade.
This cohort study uses Medicare data to evaluate whether the announcement or implementation of the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) was associated with an increase in either in-hospital or 30-day postdischarge mortality following hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), or pneumonia.
This comparative effectiveness analysis assesses the efficacy and safety of oral anticoagulants dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and warfarin in elderly Medicare beneficiaries with atrial fibrillation (AF) and multiple chronic conditions.
This cross-sectional analysis uses data from the Demographic and Health Surveys to assess the socioeconomic inequalities and prevalence of anemia among children and nonpregnant women in low- and middle-income countries.
This quality improvement study compares opioid prescribing rates in a single health system before and after a multipart intervention intended to decrease overprescribing.
This economic evaluation study uses Medicaid prescription data from 2011 to 2016 to analyze the association of number of physicians permitted to prescribe buprenorphine for opioid addiction treatment with use of buprenorphine treatment and prescription opioid use among Medicaid enrollees.
This multicenter registry-based cohort study of patients hospitalized with ischemic stroke investigates whether functional outcome differs according to potential embolic sources after cryptogenic stroke.
This cohort study assesses cystoscopy frequency for patients with low-risk vs high-risk bladder cancer treated at US Veterans Affairs facilities.
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