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October 2019 - May 2018

Decade

Year

Issue

October 2019, Vol 2, No. 10

open access Original Investigation

SURGERY

Associations Between Social Risk Factors and Surgical Site Infections After Colectomy and Abdominal Hysterectomy

This cross-sectional study examines whether social risk factors, including race/ethnicity, insurance status, and neighborhood income, are associated with higher rates of surgical site infection after colectomy or abdominal hysterectomy.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912339. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12339
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

Association Between Maternal Exposure to Lead, Maternal Folate Status, and Intergenerational Risk of Childhood Overweight and Obesity

This cohort study investigates the associations between maternal red blood cell lead levels and intergenerational risk of overweight or obesity and whether adequate maternal folate status is associated with a reduction in this risk.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912343. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12343
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GERIATRICS

Association of Total Daily Physical Activity and Fragmented Physical Activity With Mortality in Older Adults

This cohort study of adults aged 65 years and older examines whether more fragmentated physical activity, rather than total daily activity, is associated with increased mortality risk.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912352. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12352
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PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION

Effect of a Novel Transition Program on Disability After Stroke: A Trial Protocol

This trial protocol describes a randomized clinical trial that will investigate the efficacy and safety of a novel enhanced rehabilitation program to reduce environmental barriers and improve daily activity performance and community participation among stroke survivors.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912356. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12356
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

SURGERY

Association of Clinical Frailty Scores With Hospital Readmission for Falls After Index Admission for Trauma-Related Injury

This cohort study assesses whether clinical frailty scores are associated with readmission for falls after index admission for trauma-related injury among patients aged 50 years and older.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912409. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12409
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Common Secondary Genomic Variants Associated With Advanced Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma

This cross-sectional study characterizes secondary genomic alterations in patients with epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and their association with clinical outcomes.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912416. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12416
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DIABETES AND ENDOCRINOLOGY

Maternal Thyroid Hormone Replacement Therapy Exposure and Language and Communication Skills of Offspring at 8 Years of Age

This population-based cohort study examines associations between prenatal thyroid hormone replacement therapy exposure and risk of language impairment and parent-reported symptoms of language and communication skill deficits in offspring at 8 years of age.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912424. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12424
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HEALTH POLICY

Estimated Association Between Organ Availability and Presumed Consent in Solid Organ Transplant

This decision analytical model study uses a simulation model to evaluate the potential implications of a presumed consent policy for deceased organ donation allocation and availability in the United States.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912431. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12431
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PUBLIC HEALTH

Association of Number of Indoor Tanning Salons With Neighborhoods With Higher Concentrations of Male-Male Partnered Households

This cross-sectional study investigates whether indoor tanning salons are disproportionately located in areas with higher concentrations of sexual-minority men, defined as gay and bisexual men, using male-male partnered households as a proxy measure.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912443. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12443
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Association Between Rotavirus Vaccination and Risk of Intussusception Among Neonates and Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the association of rotavirus vaccination among neonates and infants with risk of intussusception for up to 2 years after vaccination overall and by type of vaccine.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912458. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12458
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OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY

Association of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder With Teenage Birth Among Women and Girls in Sweden

This cohort study examines the association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with teenage pregnancy among women and girls in Sweden.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912463. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12463
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PUBLIC HEALTH

Association of Restrictive Housing During Incarceration With Mortality After Release

This cohort study evaluates whether restrictive housing, otherwise known as solitary confinement, during incarceration is associated with reincarceration and mortality after release.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912516. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12516
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GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY

Association of Histologic Disease Activity With Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

This cohort study evaluates the progression and regression of hepatic fibrosis over time in association with the severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912565. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12565
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ONCOLOGY

Assessment of Second-Opinion Strategies for Diagnoses of Cutaneous Melanocytic Lesions

This diagnostic study evaluates whether fellowship training and board certification of physicians in dermatopathology affect the diagnostic reliability of second-opinion strategies for difficult-to-diagnose cutaneous melanocytic lesions.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912597. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12597
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PEDIATRICS

Effect of Comprehensive Care Coordination on Medicaid Expenditures Compared With Usual Care Among Children and Youth With Chronic Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial assesses whether a comprehensive care coordination program reduces Medicaid expenditures by decreasing hospital and emergency department utilization among publicly insured children and youth.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912604. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12604
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OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY

Association of Supine Going-to-Sleep Position in Late Pregnancy With Reduced Birth Weight: A Secondary Analysis of an Individual Participant Data Meta-analysis

This prespecified subgroup analysis of control participants in an individual participant data meta-analysis examines the association between supine vs nonsupine maternal sleeping position in the third trimester of pregnancy and infant birth weight.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912614. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12614
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HEALTH INFORMATICS

An Exploration of Barriers, Facilitators, and Suggestions for Improving Electronic Health Record Inbox-Related Usability: A Qualitative Analysis

This qualitative analysis using interviews with physicians determines barriers and facilitators in electronic health record inbox management and suggestions for improvement.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912638. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12638
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STATISTICS AND RESEARCH METHODS

Sample Size Estimates for Cluster-Randomized Trials in Hospital Infection Control and Antimicrobial Stewardship

This study of national rates of health care–associated infections estimates the number of hospitals needed to power parallel cluster-randomized trials of interventions and evaluates how different parameters such as coefficient of variation and expected effect size are associated with the sample size estimates in practice.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912644. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12644
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HEMATOLOGY

Association of Treatments for Myeloproliferative Neoplasms During Pregnancy With Birth Rates and Maternal Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis examines whether the use of aspirin, heparin, and interferon in pregnant women with myeloproliferative neoplasms is associated with live birth rate and adverse maternal outcomes.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912666. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12666
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PEDIATRICS

Assessment of Survival of Pediatric Patients With Hepatoblastoma Who Received Chemotherapy Following Liver Transplant or Liver Resection

This cohort study uses Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data to examine whether there is a survival benefit associated with liver transplant vs resection in pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma receiving chemotherapy.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912676. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12676
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HEALTH POLICY

Reliability of the American Community Survey Estimates of Risk-Adjusted Readmission Rankings for Hospitals Before and After Peer Group Stratification

This cross-sectional study uses data from the New York State Health Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Database to examine whether the reliability of American Community Survey socioeconomic status estimates improves with the use of new peer group–based strata compared with previous stratification by safety-net hospital designation.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912727. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12727
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NEUROLOGY

Comparison of Clinical Outcomes of Transverse Myelitis Among Adults With Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibody vs Aquaporin-4 Antibody Disease

This cross-sectional study examines clinical and radiological outcomes among patients with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody (Ab) disease or aquaporin-4 (AQP4)-Ab disease after experiencing a first transverse myelitis episode.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912732. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12732
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ONCOLOGY

Development and Validation of a Score to Predict Acute Care Use After Initiation of Systemic Therapy for Cancer

This cohort study uses population-based administrative and clinical databases to develop and validate a score to predict early use of acute care after initiating systemic therapy for cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912823. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12823
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CARDIOLOGY

Association of Estimated Pulse Wave Velocity With Survival: A Secondary Analysis of SPRINT

This secondary analysis of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) investigates whether aortic stiffness, as assessed by estimated pulse wave velocity, and its response to treatment are associated with survival in individuals with hypertension.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912831. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12831
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PUBLIC HEALTH

Evaluation of Injury Severity and Resource Utilization in Pediatric Firearm and Sharp Force Injuries

This cohort study compares the resource utilization, clinical outcomes, and severity of injuries from a firearm vs other penetrating mechanisms among children and adolescents in the United States.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912850. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12850
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STATISTICS AND RESEARCH METHODS

Feasibility of Using Real-World Data to Replicate Clinical Trial Evidence

This cross-sectional study analyzes the feasibility of replicating clinical trials by examining whether the interventions, indications, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and primary end points could be ascertained from observational data from insurance claims and/or electronic health records (EHRs).

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912869. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12869
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PUBLIC HEALTH

Accelerometer- and Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Interventions Among Adults With Cardiometabolic Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the association of accelerometer- and pedometer-based interventions with increases in physical activity among participants with cardiometabolic conditions.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912895. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12895
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ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

Association of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution With Thyroid Function During Pregnancy

This cohort study evaluates the short-term association of exposure to air pollution in the first trimester with thyroid function throughout pregnancy among European and US cohorts.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912902. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12902
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PSYCHIATRY

Estimation of Eating Disorders Prevalence by Age and Associations With Mortality in a Simulated Nationally Representative US Cohort

This decision analytical model study uses a virtual cohort of 100 000 individuals modeled from birth to age 40 years for 4 eating disorder diagnoses to examine whether increasing treatment coverage could reduce the mortality associated with eating disorders.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912925. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12925
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SURGERY

Assessment of Surgeon Variation in Adherence to Evidence-Based Recommendations for Treatment of Trigger Finger

This population-based cohort study examines treatment patterns for stenosing tenosynovitis (trigger finger) and determines surgeon-level factors associated with adherence to evidence-based treatment.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912960. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12960
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PUBLIC HEALTH

Family Leave and Return-to-Work Experiences of Physician Mothers

This cross-sectional US nationwide survey study assesses the negative and positive aspects of family leave and return-to-work experiences among physician mothers to identify best practices for supporting physician parents.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913054. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13054
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CARDIOLOGY

Trends in High- and Low-Value Cardiovascular Diagnostic Testing in Fee-for-Service Medicare, 2000-2016

This cohort study assesses whether changes in overall rates of use of diagnostic cardiovascular tests were associated with changes in high-value testing recommended by guidelines and low-value testing that is expected to provide minimal benefits among a 5% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries between 2000 and 2006.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913070. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13070
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RHEUMATOLOGY

Risk of Infections and Cancer in Patients With Rheumatologic Diseases Receiving Interleukin Inhibitors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the risk for serious infections, opportunistic infections, and cancers in individuals receiving interleukin inhibitor therapies for rheumatologic diseases.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913102. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13102
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NEPHROLOGY

Association of Family Ratings of Quality of End-of-Life Care With Stopping Dialysis Treatment and Receipt of Hospice Services

This survey study examines the association of family-rated quality of end-of-life care with stopping dialysis treatment and receipt of hospice services among veterans with end-stage renal disease.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913115. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13115
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NEUROLOGY

Association of Neurocognitive and Physical Function With Gait Speed in Midlife

This 5-decade cohort study of a New Zealand population examines whether slow gait speed in middle age is associated with accelerated biological aging, as well as poor neurocognitive functioning in childhood and cognitive decline from childhood to middle age.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913123. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13123
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CARDIOLOGY

National Trends in American Heart Association Revised Life's Simple 7 Metrics Associated With Risk of Mortality Among US Adults

This cross-sectional study examines the association of adherence to the American Heart Association (AHA) revised Life’s Simple 7 (LS7) metrics with reduced risk of all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular disease–related mortality and compares the revised metrics with the original LS7 metrics.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913131. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13131
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DIABETES AND ENDOCRINOLOGY

Racial and Ethnic Differences in 30-Day Hospital Readmissions Among US Adults With Diabetes

This cohort study examines racial/ethnic differences in all-cause readmission among US adults with diabetes and categorizes patient- and system-level factors associated with these differences.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913249. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13249
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EMERGENCY MEDICINE

Use of Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Devices for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest, 2010-2016

This cross-sectional study uses data from the National Emergency Medical Services Information System to investigate the use of mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the prehospital setting and determine whether patient demographics or geographical location is associated with its use.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913298. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13298
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PSYCHIATRY

Association Between Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Suicide

This population-based case-control study of individuals aged 66 years and older in Ontario, Canada, examines whether angiotensin receptor blockers are associated with a higher risk of suicide than angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913304. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13304
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HEALTH POLICY

Cascades of Care After Incidental Findings in a US National Survey of Physicians

This survey study estimates the national frequency and consequences of cascades of care after incidental findings using results from a national survey of US physicians.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913325. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13325
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GERIATRICS

Assessment of Sarcopenia Among Community-Dwelling At-Risk Frail Adults Aged 65 Years and Older Who Received Multidomain Lifestyle Interventions: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial

This secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial examines the association of a 6-month multidomain active lifestyle intervention with sarcopenia among elderly participants in Singapore.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913346. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13346
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NEUROLOGY

Association of β-Amyloid Burden With Sleep Dysfunction and Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Individuals With Cognitive Disorders

This survey study examines whether β-amyloid deposition in the brain is associated with sleep dysfunction and cognition in elderly individuals with cognitive disorders.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913383. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13383
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OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY

Association of Maternal Lactation With Diabetes and Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the association between breastfeeding and maternal risk of diabetes and hypertension.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913401. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13401
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DERMATOLOGY

Assessment of Accuracy of an Artificial Intelligence Algorithm to Detect Melanoma in Images of Skin Lesions

This diagnostic study determines the accuracy of an artificial intelligence algorithm in identifying melanoma in dermoscopic images of lesions taken with smartphone and digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) cameras.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913436. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13436
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NEUROLOGY

Association of Acquired and Heritable Factors With Intergenerational Differences in Age at Symptomatic Onset of Alzheimer Disease Between Offspring and Parents With Dementia

This cohort study examines the associations of acquired and heritable factors associated with intergenerational differences in age at symptomatic onset of Alzheimer disease among offspring of parents with Alzheimer disease.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913491. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13491
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HEALTH POLICY

Primary Care Clinician and Clinic Director Experiences of Professional Bias, Harassment, and Discrimination in an Underserved Agricultural Region of California

This qualitative study describes the professional experiences and the perceived associations with gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, and gender identity of a diverse group of primary care clinicians and clinic directors in an underserved rural and agricultural region of California.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913535. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13535
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CARDIOLOGY

Analysis of Temporal Trends and Variation in the Use of Defibrillation Testing in Contemporary Practice

This cross-sectional study examines temporal trends and variations in the use of defibrillation testing among patients undergoing first-time implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913553. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13553
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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

Association of Occupational Exposure to Disinfectants With Incidence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Among US Female Nurses

This cohort study evaluates data from the Nurses’ Health Study II to investigate the association of occupational exposure to disinfectants and other cleaning products with the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among female US registered nurses with no history of COPD at baseline.

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JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913563. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13563
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Association of Open Approach vs Laparoscopic Approach With Risk of Surgical Site Infection After Colon Surgery

This cohort study compares the surgical site infection rate associated with laparoscopic colon surgery vs open-approach laparoscopy.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913570. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13570
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CARDIOLOGY

Association of Endothelial Dysfunction and Antiretroviral Therapy in Early HIV Infection

This cohort study examines endothelial function in patients with early HIV infection at baseline and after antiretroviral therapy initiation.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913615. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13615
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ONCOLOGY

Association of Chemoradiotherapy Regimens and Survival Among Patients With Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses whether concurrent chemoradiotherapy is associated with improvement in survival outcomes for patients with locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913619. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13619
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GLOBAL HEALTH

A Comparison of Pneumococcal Nasopharyngeal Carriage in Very Young Fijian Infants Born by Vaginal or Cesarean Delivery

This cross-sectional study uses surveys to describe and compare pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage and density by vaginal vs cesarean delivery in young Fijian infants.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913650. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13650
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HEALTH POLICY

Association of Pediatric Inpatient Socioeconomic Status With Hospital Efficiency and Financial Balance

This cohort study examines the association of pediatric inpatient socioeconomic status with the hospital’s efficiency and financial balance in France.

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JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913656. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13656
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Development and Assessment of Objective Surveillance Definitions for Nonventilator Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia

This cohort study develops and assesses electronic surveillance definitions for nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia using clinical data routinely recorded in electronic health records.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913674. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13674
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MEDICAL JOURNALS AND PUBLISHING

Gender Disparities in Invited Commentary Authorship in 2459 Medical Journals

This case-control study examines gender differences in authorship of invited commentaries published in medical journals from 2013 to 2017, controlling for field of expertise, seniority, and publication metrics.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913682. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13682
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NUTRITION, OBESITY, AND EXERCISE

Effect of Weight Loss via Severe vs Moderate Energy Restriction on Lean Mass and Body Composition Among Postmenopausal Women With Obesity: The TEMPO Diet Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial compares the long-term effects of weight loss via severe vs moderate energy restriction on lean mass and other aspects of body composition among postmenopausal women with obesity.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913733. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13733
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PUBLIC HEALTH

Association of Flavored Tobacco Use With Tobacco Initiation and Subsequent Use Among US Youth and Adults, 2013-2015

This cohort study uses data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study to examine whether first use of flavored tobacco products is associated with subsequent tobacco use among US youth and adults.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913804. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13804
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PSYCHIATRY

Stepped Care Internet-Delivered vs Face-to-Face Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Trial Protocol for a Randomized Noninferiority Trial

This protocol describes a randomized clinical noninferiority trial to determine whether cognitive behavioral therapy delivered online as part of a stepped care model is noninferior to, and cost-effective compared with, face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913810. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13810
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SUBSTANCE USE AND ADDICTION

Association of a Multimodal Educational Intervention for Primary Care Physicians With Prescriptions of Buprenorphine for Opioid Use Disorders

This quality improvement study examines the association of a multimodal educational intervention for primary care physicians (PCPs) with prescriptions of buprenorphine for treatment of patients with opioid use disorder.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913818. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13818
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Effect of Frequency of Changing Point-of-Use Reminder Signs on Health Care Worker Hand Hygiene Adherence: A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial

This cluster randomized trial investigates the effect of frequency of changing hand hygiene reminder signs on hand hygiene adherence among health care workers.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913823. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13823
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GENETICS AND GENOMICS

Assessment of Diagnostic Outcomes of RNA Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer

This diagnostic study evaluates whether RNA genetic testing (RGT) is associated with an improvement in the diagnostic outcome of DNA genetic testing (DGT) and in the delivery of personalized cancer risk management for patients with hereditary cancer predisposition.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913900. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13900
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NEUROLOGY

Association of Apolipoprotein E ɛ4, Educational Level, and Sex With Tau Deposition and Tau-Mediated Metabolic Dysfunction in Older Adults

This cohort study investigates the association of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele, education levels, and sex with tau deposition and tau-mediated metabolic dysfunction in older adults.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913909. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13909
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ALLERGY

Simulation of Health and Economic Benefits of Extended Observation of Resolved Anaphylaxis

This economic evaluation uses computer-simulated patients to examine the cost-effectiveness of short (1 hour) vs prolonged (≥6 hours) medical observation for biphasic anaphylaxis after an episode of resolved anaphylaxis.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913951. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13951
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GENETICS AND GENOMICS

Comparative Tumor RNA Sequencing Analysis for Difficult-to-Treat Pediatric and Young Adult Patients With Cancer

This cohort study evaluates the feasibility and utility of incorporating comparative gene expression information into the precision medicine framework for difficult-to-treat pediatric and young adult patients with cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913968. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13968
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COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE

Association of the Functional Medicine Model of Care With Patient-Reported Health-Related Quality-of-Life Outcomes

This cohort study uses the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System to assess the association between the functional medicine model of care and patient-reported health-related quality of life among adults.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914017. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14017
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NUTRITION, OBESITY, AND EXERCISE

Association of Metabolically Healthy Overweight Phenotype With Abnormalities of Glucose Levels and Blood Pressure Among Chinese Adults

This cohort study assesses the association of metabolically healthy overweight phenotype with the risk of glucose level abnormality and high blood pressure in Chinese adults.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914025. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14025
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PEDIATRICS

Risk of Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection Among Sexually Active Female Adolescents Receiving the Quadrivalent Vaccine

This cohort study assesses associations between sexual activity, the oral presence of human papillomavirus (HPV), and HPV vaccination among sexually active female adolescents vaccinated against 4 HPV types.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914031. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14031
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HEALTH INFORMATICS

Trends and Focus of Machine Learning Applications for Health Research

This qualitative study analyzes submissions to a popular machine learning for health workshop to assess the current state of health research, including areas of methodologic and clinical focus, limitations, and underexplored areas.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914051. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14051
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NEUROLOGY

Cognitive Development of Infants Exposed to the Zika Virus in Puerto Rico

This cross-sectional study of 65 infants in Puerto Rico examines the associations of exposure to maternal Zika virus and Hurricane Maria with infant cognitive scores.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914061. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14061
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PEDIATRICS

Assessment of Selective and Universal Screening for Suicide Risk in a Pediatric Emergency Department

This cohort study examines the association between results of universal and selective screening for suicide risk in a pediatric emergency department using the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) instrument and subsequent suicide-related outcomes.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914070. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14070
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PUBLIC HEALTH

Association of Physical Activity and Fracture Risk Among Postmenopausal Women

This cohort study of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) assesses the associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with fracture incidence among postmenopausal women.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914084. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14084
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HEALTH POLICY

Revenues and Profits From Medicare Patients in Hospitals Participating in the 340B Drug Discount Program, 2013-2016

This cross-sectional study reports revenues and estimated profits from the 340B drug discount program that hospitals collect from Medicare and Medicare beneficiaries for outpatient clinic administration of prescription drugs covered under Medicare Part B.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914141. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14141
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Epidemiologic Trends in Clostridioides difficile Infections in a Regional Community Hospital Network

This cohort study examines the 5-year incidence of community-acquired and health care facility–associated Clostridioides difficile infection among patients in US community hospitals.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914149. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14149
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NEUROLOGY

Effect of Combination l-Citrulline and Metformin Treatment on Motor Function in Patients With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial evaluates the effect of treatment with a combination of L-citrulline and metformin on the motor function of ambulant boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914171. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14171
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PUBLIC HEALTH

Assessment of Caregiver-Targeted Interventions for Use of Motor Vehicle Passenger Safety Systems for Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates whether caregiver-targeted interventions are associated with changes in the use of child restraint systems in motor vehicles.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914180. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14180
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ORTHOPEDICS

Association of Race/Ethnicity With Hospital Discharge Disposition After Elective Total Knee Arthroplasty

This cohort study examines the association of race/ethnicity with discharge disposition and 90-day hospital readmission overall and stratified by age among patients who have undergone total knee arthroplasty.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914259. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14259
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CARDIOLOGY

Clinical Outcomes of Mortality, Readmissions, and Ischemic Stroke Among Medicare Patients Undergoing Left Atrial Appendage Closure via Implanted Device

This cohort study of patients with atrial fibrillation who underwent left atrial appendage closure with an implanted device evaluates postprocedural mortality rates and rates of readmission and ischemic stroke.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914268. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14268
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NEUROLOGY

Development and Validation of a Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing Gene Panel for Children With Neuroinflammation

This cohort study describes the development and validation of a targeted next-generation sequencing gene panel to identify monogenic disease-causing mutations in children with unclassified neuroinflammation.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914274. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14274
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HEALTH POLICY

Geographical Variation in Outcomes of Primary Hip and Knee Replacement

This cohort study evaluates variation in patient outcomes and costs for primary hip and knee replacement across health areas in England and identifies whether patient, surgical, or hospital factors are associated with such variation.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914325. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14325
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PSYCHIATRY

Prevalence, Onset, and Course of Suicidal Behavior Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Germany

This cross-sectional epidemiological study of a random community sample of adolescents and young adults in Dresden, Germany, examines the prevalence and timing of suicidal ideation, planning, and attempt.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914386. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14386
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ONCOLOGY

Machine Learning Approaches to Predict 6-Month Mortality Among Patients With Cancer

This cohort study develops, validates, and compares machine learning algorithms that use structured electronic health record data before a clinic visit to predict mortality among patients with cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1915997. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.15997
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open access Invited Commentary

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

Adequate Prenatal Maternal Folate—An Additional Intervention Strategy Among Populations Affected by Prenatal Lead Exposure?

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912334. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12334
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SURGERY

Predicting Readmissions—With a Twist

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912399. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12399
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NEPHROLOGY

Stopping Dialysis, Good Deaths, and Social Justice

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913110. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13110
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NEUROLOGY

Gait Speed Reveals Clues to Lifelong Health

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913112. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13112
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PSYCHIATRY

Concerns Raised by a Study of Suicide as an Adverse Drug Effect—Replicating Findings From Real-World Data

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913284. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13284
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HEALTH POLICY

The Important but Rarely Studied Cascade of Care

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913315. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13315
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HEALTH POLICY

Are Bias, Harassment, and Discrimination by Physician-Peers a Reason Why Some Physicians Leave Rural Communities?

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913540. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13540
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Learning Curves and the Challenges of Adopting New Surgical Techniques

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913569. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13569
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HEALTH POLICY

Adjusting Hospital Reimbursement to Account for Social Influences on Health

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JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913630. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13630
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Working Toward Better Metrics for Nonventilator Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913662. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13662
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MEDICAL JOURNALS AND PUBLISHING

Underrepresentation of Women Among Authors of Invited Commentaries in Medical Journals—Where Are the Female Editorialists?

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913665. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13665
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NUTRITION, OBESITY, AND EXERCISE

Very Low-Energy Diets—Opportunity for Greater Weight Loss, but Risk of Bone Loss

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913752. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13752
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PEDIATRICS

Young Women and Oral Human Papillomavirus—Vaccination Is Associated With Protection

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914038. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14038
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PUBLIC HEALTH

Analyses of Physical Activity and Health—Are Our Methods Too Sedentary?

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914085. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14085
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open access Research Letter

HEALTH POLICY

Association of Indiana’s Section 1115 Waiver With Medicaid Enrollment

This cross-sectional study estimates the difference in Medicaid enrollment associated with Indiana’s expansion of Medicaid using a Section 1115 waiver.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1912922. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12922
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PHARMACY AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Characteristics of Recent Generic Drug Approvals by the US Food and Drug Administration

This cross-sectional study describes the characteristics of abbreviated new drug applications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, focusing on those with limited generic competition or with history of shortages.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913029. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13029
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PEDIATRICS

Association of Early Direct Bilirubin Levels and Biliary Atresia Among Neonates

This case series evaluates the direct bilirubin levels in the first days after birth among neonates who were subsequently diagnosed with biliary atresia.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913321. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13321
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ONCOLOGY

Association of Treatment With 5α-Reductase Inhibitors and Prostate Cancer Mortality Among Older Adults

This cohort study examines the association between use of 5α-reductase inhibitors and prostate cancer mortality among US Medicare beneficiaries.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913612. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13612
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PUBLIC HEALTH

Trends in Internet Searches for Cannabidiol (CBD) in the United States

This cross-sectional study examines Google searches for cannabidiol (CBD) in the United States to gauge public interest in the use of CBD.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913853. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13853
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PUBLIC HEALTH

Association of Length of Time Spent in the United States With Opioid Use Among First-Generation Immigrants

This cross-sectional study uses Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data to examine the association of the length of time a first-generation immigrant has spent in the United States with the likelihood of opioid use.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913979. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13979
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open access Correction

Error in Abstract and Methods

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913513. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13513
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Error in Byline

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913673. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13673
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Error in Table

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913724. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13724
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Errors in Figure 2, Figure 3, and Study Limitations

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914190. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14190
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Error in Author Name

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914599. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14599
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Error in Text

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1914712. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.14712
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Errors in the Supplement

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1915280. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.15280
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Errors in Key Points and Corresponding Author Address

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1915468. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.15468
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Incomplete Conflict of Interest Disclosures

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1916040. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.16040
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open access JAMA Network Open Masthead

JAMA Network Open

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(10):e1913852. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13852
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