This cross-sectional study examines the association of state-level punitive or reporting policies related to substance use during pregnancy with rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome.
This cohort study examines trends, including associated demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, and negative outcomes, in the prevalence and incidence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis among 7 racial/ethnic groups in the United States during a 10-year period.
This matched cohort study evaluates the association between switching from a non–high deductible health plan to a high-deductible health plan and discontinuation of antihyperglycemic medication among adults with type 2 diabetes.
This community-based cohort study examines trends in coverage of HIV prevention and treatment programs and HIV incidence among adults in the hyperendemic area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
This randomized clinical trial assesses an escalating lottery-based incentive tied to daily self-weighing for weight loss maintenance among adults in an online weight management program.
This Danish population-based cohort study uses national registry data to evaluate the association of exposure to nitrogen dioxide in childhood and genetic liability for schizophrenia with the risk of developing schizophrenia.
This cohort study evaluates whether sex is associated with postoperative mortality among patients with heart failure who underwent elective noncardiac operations.
This trial protocol describes a randomized clinical trial that will compare the effectiveness of universal school-based screening for adolescent major depressive disorder vs the existing process of targeted screening based on observable behavior.
This cohort study examines the association between billed advance care planning encounters and subsequent health care utilization among seriously ill patients near the end of life.
This qualitative study uses interviews with 22 Canadian clinicians to examine the perceived barriers to discussing fertility and fertility preservation with young women with cancer.
This randomized clinical trial examines the effects of a community agency–administered postnatal nurse home visitation program on child protective services investigations for maltreatment and other maternal and child health-related outcomes.
This cross-sectional study evaluates the cost-sharing payments for out-of-network care for insurance plan enrollees with mental health conditions, alcohol use disorders, or drug use disorders compared with those with congestive heart failure or diabetes.
This systematic review, meta-analysis, and metaregression of clinical studies explores the association between chorioamnionitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.
This diagnostic study describes a novel attention-based deep neural network framework for classifying microscopy images to identify Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.
This cross-sectional study develops and validates a machine learning method for collecting and classifying data from opioid-related postings on a social media platform.
This cohort study examines the association between antidiabetic medication and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, frequency of PSA testing and biopsy, and detection of prostate cancer at biopsy among Swedish men with diabetes.
This cohort study examines changes in health care spending, use, and quality of care after the implementation of Medicare’s first mandatory bundled payment system at participating hospitals and among dual-eligible patients.
This cross-sectional study characterizes National Institutes of Health (NIH) support for primary and secondary prevention research in humans and related methods research of the leading risk factors or causes of death or disability as outcomes or exposures.
This randomized clinical trial evaluates the effectiveness of mailed self-test kits for human papillomavirus (HPV) vs usual care for detection and treatment of cervical precancers and uptake of cervical cancer screening.
This systematic review examines the representation in rheumatoid arthritis randomized clinical trials of racial/ethnic minority groups compared with the representation of these populations in the United States and the representation of women and elderly people with the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis among these groups nationally.
This nested case-control study investigates the incidence and risk factors of late-diagnosed hip dislocation among Swedish children undergoing clinical screening for hip instability as neonates.
This survey study evaluates associations of conflict severity with improvement of health system performance, use of health services, and child nutrition outcomes in Afghanistan during the 2003 to 2018 reconstruction period.
This population-based cohort study examines the visit frequency, quality of care, and cost for patients with chronic diseases seen by fee-for-service vs salaried specialist physicians.
This meta-analysis examines the association between the D2 dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) and alcohol use disorder.
This randomized clinical trial compares 2 administration methods for the opioid antagonist naloxone in individuals served by a medically supervised drug-injecting facility in Australia.
This randomized clinical trial examines the efficacy of an immediate and sustained release oral ondansetron tablet in preventing vomiting for up to 24 hours in adolescents and adults with gastroenteritis.
This diagnostic study evaluates whether aberrant intestinal alkaline phosphatase biochemistry in infant stool is a molecular biomarker for necrotizing enterocolitis and not associated with sepsis in the absence of necrotizing enterocolitis.
This quality improvement study uses data from the Australian Surgical National Antimicrobial Prescribing Survey to describe prescribing practices for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis and assess factors associated with appropriate prescribing.
This cohort study examines the internal jugular vein flow and morphology of crew members of the International Space Station and the use of lower body negative pressure as a countermeasure to the headward fluid shift experienced during space flight.
This cohort study examines patterns of individual pain trajectories after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and assesses their independent associations with longer-term pain outcome after surgery.
This cohort study examines whether long-term changes in chronic disease control were associated with a 6-month decrease in access to health care services among veterans in New York City after superstorm Sandy in October 2012.
This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses whether nutritional support is associated with better clinical outcomes in medical inpatients who are malnourished or at nutritional risk.
This mixed-methods qualitative study explores how physicians in the Department of Medicine at the University of Calgary perceive the climate for women physicians and compares perceptions and experience of gender inequity among physicians based on characteristics including gender, faculty status, parental status, and years in practice.
This cross-sectional study examines trends in current measured body mass index (BMI) and weight, self-reported weight, self-perceived weight status, weight loss attempts, and weight loss strategies among adults in the United States using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
This cross-sectional study conducted in Singapore examines the association between multimorbidity and sociodemographic factors and the association between mental health diseases and physical diseases, as well as their implications for the types and costs of health care use.
This quality improvement study evaluates whether an electronic health record add-on app for neonatal bilirubin management is associated with clinician time savings and improvements in patient care.
This cohort study estimates hip fracture risk associated with concurrent exposure to multiple fracture-associated drugs.
This simulated cohort modeling study compares life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy, and projected lifetime income between individuals with and without sickle cell disease.
This cross-sectional study analyzes the characteristics of citations from scholarly literature that reference the 1998 article by Wakefield et al and investigates whether authors are accurately citing retracted references.
This cohort study assesses whether single-vendor procurement of spinal implants is associated with reduce hospital expenditures without compromising surgical quality.
This cohort study analyzes Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services data for heart failure and pneumonia discharges to ascertain hospital payment profiles associated with hospitalization costs for Medicare beneficiaries.
This secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial investigates the long-term success of a dental health intervention introduced in a trial involving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and their mothers in Australia.
This quality improvement study evaluates the association of an active choice intervention in the electronic health record directed to medical assistants with changes in ordering and patient completion of breast and colorectal cancer screening tests.
This cohort study examines the association of timing of receipt of plasma transfusions among women experiencing persistent postpartum hemorrhage with adverse maternal outcomes.
This cohort study examines the rate of opioid overdose deaths among Medicare recipients younger than 65 years who qualified for Medicare because of disability.
This mixed-methods survey and qualitative study investigates the association of willingness to participate in biomedical research and share social media data with source of study funding and online recruitment platform.
This cohort study compares long-term overall survival of patients with early-stage non–small cell lung cancer treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy vs surgery including various degrees of lymph node examination.
This diagnostic study compares the efficiency and effectiveness of 6 triage testing scenarios for screening women with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) for referral for colposcopy.
This cross-sectional study analyzes the contributions of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) program for reviewing antiretroviral drugs for use in low-resource settings, as well as areas for improvement.
This trial protocol describes a pilot study that tests the augmentation effect of inaudible, high-frequency sounds on the efficacy of positive valence system–focused cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to treat anhedonia.
This cohort study examines the association of the use of positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET-CT) and non–small cell lung cancer mortality in the US Department of Veterans Affairs health care system from 2000 to 2013.
This cohort study identifies causes of death associated with ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution in the United States and estimates the burden of death for each cause.
This study estimates the association of a multisite interprofessional education initiative in the US Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinics with quality of care.
This cross-sectional study examines 8 clinical practice guidelines for consistency in recommendations for diagnosis and management of hypertension.
This cohort study compares cardiac risk factor burden, health services use, and major cardiovascular event incidence between physicians and the general population in Ontario, Canada.
This cross-sectional study uses bibliometric analysis to quantify the extent and relevance of international research collaborations funded by the US National Institutes of Health.
This cohort study compares amputation and mortality rates among patients treated in the Veterans Health Administration for diabetic foot osteomyelitis with and without rifampin.
This case-control study evaluates the first year of penalties assessed by the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program policy of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services to investigate whether an association exists between penalties and surgical volume or characteristics of hospitals or patients undergoing elective total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty.
This cross-sectional study examines the associations of parental marijuana use with marijuana, tobacco, and alcohol use and opioid misuse in their adolescent or young adult offspring.
This cross-sectional study uses data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health survey to explore racial and ethnic differences in the associations between parental educational attainment and youth outcomes among US adolescents.
This prognostic study quantifies the association of contrast volume during percutaneous coronary intervention with the risk of acute kidney injury, accounting for the possibility of nonlinearity and heterogeneity among different baseline risks.
This cross-sectional study estimates the potential upper bound of off-label use of erdafitinib to treat advanced cancer with fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) gene alterations, compares it to the upper bound of on-label use in urothelial cancer, and reviews studies that may support off-label use.
This systematic review and meta-analysis examines whether physician depressive symptoms are associated with the risk for perceived or observed medical errors.
This cohort study investigates the association between continuous proton pump inhibitor therapy and acute gastroenteritis due to infection with enteric viruses during the 2015 to 2016 winter epidemic in France.
This phase 2 clinical trial evaluates the efficacy and safety of pertuzumab in combination with gemcitabine and trastuzumab after prior treatment with pertuzumab for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2, formerly HER2)–positive metastatic breast cancer.
This cohort study characterizes US trends in opioid dose tapering among patients prescribed long-term opioids from 2008 to 2017 and identifies patient-level variables associated with tapering and a more rapid tapering rate.
This cross-sectional study examines a novel fundus photograph–based eye screening model for early detection of diabetic retinopathy to prevent vision loss in Bangladeshi individuals with diabetes.
This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the association of marijuana use with the development of cancer in adults with at least 1 joint-year exposure (equivalent to 1 joint per day for 1 year).
This cross-sectional study examines the attributable association of modifiable risk factors for adverse outcomes after hernia repair and increased health care spending associated with these adverse outcomes.
This secondary analysis of the Restrictive vs Liberal Fluid Therapy for Major Abdominal Surgery (RELIEF) randomized clinical trial compares the value of waist circumference with the value of waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index in predicting adverse outcomes, including major septic complications and persistent disability, following major abdominal surgery.
This cross-sectional study examines newspaper adherence to reporting guidelines for suicide after the deaths of Kate Spade and Anthony Bourdain.
This cross-sectional study estimates the publication rate of clinical trials related to lung cancer and examines the characteristics of published vs unpublished trials.
This survey study compares the demographic characteristics, access to care, and health status of recent Medicaid enrollees in Wisconsin with and without experience of Medicaid lockouts.
This cross-sectional study examines the association of law enforcement seizures of heroin, fentanyl, and carfentanil with opioid overdose deaths in Ohio from 2014 to 2017.
This systematic review and meta-analysis examines factors associated with inclusion of patients with HIV in clinical trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors.
This cross-sectional study examines discrepancies between registered protocols and subsequent publications for drug and diet trials whose findings were published in prominent clinical journals in the last decade.
This case series characterizes nicotine absorption among adults who regularly use a pod-based electronic nicotine delivery system.
This survey study examines the changing attitudes regarding the perceived harm of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) among smokers, nonsmokers, and ENDS users from 2017 to 2018.
This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of women authors in 5 prominent family medicine journals.
This survey study uses data from the 2017 National Health Interview Survey to examine patients’ perspectives on the cultural competence of US health care professionals.
This cross-sectional study assesses the gender balance of invited speakers and award recipients at US annual medical education conferences.
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