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June 2019 - May 2018

Decade

Year

Issue

May 2019, Vol 2, No. 5

open access Original Investigation

ONCOLOGY

Association of Twice-Daily Radiotherapy With Subsequent Brain Metastases in Adults With Small Cell Lung Cancer

This multicenter cohort study investigates the association of thoracic twice-daily radiotherapy vs once-daily radiotherapy with brain metastases after prophylactic cranial irradiation in adult Chinese patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC).

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e190103. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.0103
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

CARDIOLOGY

Characteristics and Trends Among Patients With Cardiovascular Disease Referred to Palliative Care

This cohort study uses registry data to assess characteristics and trends among patients with cardiovascular disease referred to palliative care.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e192375. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2375
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Estimation of the Percentage of US Patients With Cancer Who Are Eligible for and Respond to Checkpoint Inhibitor Immunotherapy Drugs

This cross-sectional study estimates the percentage of US patients with cancer who were eligible for and who responded to checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy drugs between 2011 and 2018.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e192535. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2535
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

MEDICAL JOURNALS AND PUBLISHING

Level and Prevalence of Spin in Published Cardiovascular Randomized Clinical Trial Reports With Statistically Nonsignificant Primary Outcomes: A Systematic Review

This systematic review examines the level and prevalence of spin in presenting findings that are not statistically significant in published reports of cardiovascular randomized clinical trials (RCTs).

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e192622. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2622
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PEDIATRICS

Association of Socioeconomic Status and Brain Injury With Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Very Preterm Children

This cohort study evaluates the association of maternal education and brain injury with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born very prematurely in Canada.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e192914. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2914
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

GERIATRICS

Comparative Effectiveness of Behavioral Interventions on Quality of Life for Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This cluster randomized, multicomponent comparative effectiveness trial compares the incremental effects of combinations of 5 behavioral interventions on outcomes of highest importance to patients with mild cognitive impairment.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193016. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3016
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NUTRITION, OBESITY, AND EXERCISE

Association of Sugary Beverage Consumption With Mortality Risk in US Adults: A Secondary Analysis of Data From the REGARDS Study

This cohort study and secondary analysis of the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study assesses the association of sugary beverage consumption with mortality among US adults.

has audio
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193121. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3121
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

DIABETES AND ENDOCRINOLOGY

Reach and Use of Diabetes Prevention Services in the United States, 2016-2017

This nationally representative cross-sectional analysis of data from the US National Health Interview Survey findings assesses the reach and use of diabetes prevention services among US adults with diagnosed prediabetes or risk factors for type 2 diabetes.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193160. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3160
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

SUBSTANCE USE AND ADDICTION

Naloxone Prescriptions Among Commercially Insured Individuals at High Risk of Opioid Overdose

This cohort study analyzes a nationwide database of commercially insured US individuals to determine how often naloxone is prescribed to individuals at high risk of opioid overdose.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193209. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3209
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE

Association of Age With Short-term and Long-term Mortality Among Patients Discharged From Intensive Care Units in France

This cohort study using data extracted from the French national health system database describes short-term and long-term mortality (up to 3 years after discharge) across age strata in adult patients discharged from French intensive care units (ICUs).

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193215. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3215
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ALLERGY

Estimation of Health and Economic Benefits of Commercial Peanut Immunotherapy Products: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis

This economic evaluation uses a simulation to calculate the cost-effectiveness of epicutaneous peanut immunotherapy and peanut oral immunotherapy under differing assumptions.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193242. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3242
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Association Between Medicare Policy Reforms and Changes in Hospitalized Medicare Beneficiaries' Severity of Illness

This cohort study examines US Medicare inpatient claims data from 2008 through 2015 for patients’ measured severity of illness after Medicare policy changes for the expansion of secondary diagnosis codes and payment reform.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193290. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3290
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Association of Malaria Infection During Pregnancy With Head Circumference of Newborns in the Brazilian Amazon

This cohort study conducted in the Amazonian region of Brazil investigates whether an association exists between malaria infection during pregnancy and fetal head growth assessed by head circumference of newborns.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193300. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3300
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

GENETICS AND GENOMICS

Assessment of Molecular Subtypes in Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis and Graves Disease Among Chinese Han Adults: A Population-Based Genome-Wide Association Study

This population-based case-control study uses a 2-stage genome-wide association study to evaluate the association of specific loci with thyrotoxic periodic paralysis and determine whether these loci are also associated with Graves disease in a Chinese Han population.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193348. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3348
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

GLOBAL HEALTH

Self-reported Symptoms of Depression Among Chinese Rural-to-Urban Migrants and Left-Behind Family Members

This cross-sectional study analyzes the association of rural-to-urban migration in China with mental health among migrants and their left-behind family members.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193355. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3355
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NEUROLOGY

Association of Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging Signs With Cognitive Outcomes in Persons With Nonimpaired Cognition and Mild Cognitive Impairment

This cohort study evaluates which Alzheimer disease and vascular-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs may be associated with dementia and mild cognitive impairment in older adults.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193359. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3359
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

SUBSTANCE USE AND ADDICTION

Strategies to Identify Patient Risks of Prescription Opioid Addiction When Initiating Opioids for Pain: A Systematic Review

This systematic review of studies examining factors associated with opioid addiction investigates whether clinically useful associations exist between opioid addiction and patient characteristics, drug characteristics, and use of common screening tools.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193365. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3365
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Association of Primary Care Clinic Appointment Time With Clinician Ordering and Patient Completion of Breast and Colorectal Cancer Screening

This quality improvement study evaluates the association of primary care clinic appointment time with clinician ordering and patient completion of breast and colorectal cancer screening.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193403. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3403
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Analysis of Postapproval Clinical Trials of Therapeutics Approved by the US Food and Drug Administration Without Clinical Postmarketing Requirements or Commitments

This cross-sectional study characterizes postapproval clinical trials sponsored by pharmaceutical companies of therapeutics approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) without postmarketing requirements or commitments.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193410. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3410
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ONCOLOGY

Correlation of Milestone Restricted Mean Survival Time Ratio With Overall Survival Hazard Ratio in Randomized Clinical Trials of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis examines randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of immune checkpoint inhibitors to evaluate the use of milestone rate and milestone restricted mean survival time as intermediate end points in immune checkpoint inhibitor trials.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193433. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3433
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PSYCHIATRY

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Major Depressive Disorder Among Women at Public Antenatal Clinics From Refugee, Conflict-Affected, and Australian-Born Backgrounds

This cross-sectional study compares the prevalence of major depressive disorder, trauma exposure, and other psychosocial risk factors among women who identify as refugees, women from the same conflict-affected countries, and women born in the host nation, Australia.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193442. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3442
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PSYCHIATRY

Association of Economic Status and Educational Attainment With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Mendelian Randomization Study

This mendelian randomization study investigates the association of posttraumatic stress disorder and traits associated with educational attainment.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193447. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3447
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PUBLIC HEALTH

Association of Modifiable Risk Factors With Dental Caries Among Indigenous and Nonindigenous Children in Australia

This cross-sectional study estimates the association of modifiable risk factors with dental caries in Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian children using data from the National Child Oral Health Study 2012-2014.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193466. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3466
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

MEDICAL EDUCATION

Assessment of Gender-Based Linguistic Differences in Physician Trainee Evaluations of Medical Faculty Using Automated Text Mining

This cohort study examines whether the specific word and phrase frequency used in physician trainee narrative evaluations of medical faculty and qualified by automated text mining is associated with the gender of the faculty member evaluated.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193520. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3520
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

SURGERY

Development and Evaluation of a New Frailty Index for Older Surgical Patients With Cancer

This cohort study evaluates the association of the Memorial Sloan Kettering–Frailty Index with established geriatric assessment and surgical outcomes for older surgical patients with cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193545. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3545
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PEDIATRICS

Effect of Electronic Screening With Personalized Feedback on Adolescent Health Risk Behaviors in a Primary Care Setting: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial tests the effect of an electronic screening and personalized feedback tool on clinician counseling and adolescent-reported health risk behaviors.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193581. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3581
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NUTRITION, OBESITY, AND EXERCISE

Association of High Intakes of Vitamins B6 and B12 From Food and Supplements With Risk of Hip Fracture Among Postmenopausal Women in the Nurses’ Health Study

This cohort study assesses the association between high intakes of vitamins B6 and B12 from food and supplements with a risk of hip fracture in the Nurses’ Health Study and investigates whether combined high intakes of both vitamins were associated with an increased fracture risk.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193591. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3591
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

GLOBAL HEALTH

Assessment of the Feasibility and Cost of Hepatitis C Elimination in Pakistan

This decision analytical model study evaluates whether hepatitis C virus elimination is feasible in Pakistan and estimates the costs of eliminating this virus.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193613. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3613
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY

Association of Adult Congenital Heart Disease With Pregnancy, Maternal, and Neonatal Outcomes

This cross-sectional study assesses the association of adult congenital heart disease and its subtypes among Canadian women with pregnancy and maternal and neonatal outcomes.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193667. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3667
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

SUBSTANCE USE AND ADDICTION

Assessment of Prescriber and Pharmacy Shopping Among the Family Members of Patients Prescribed Opioids

This cross-sectional analysis examines prescriber and pharmacy shopping among patients who are prescribed opioids and their family members.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193673. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3673
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ORTHOPEDICS

Expenditures and Health Care Utilization Among Adults With Newly Diagnosed Low Back and Lower Extremity Pain

This cohort study examines health care utilization and expenditures among US adult patients with newly diagnosed low back pain or lower extremity pain treated surgically vs nonsurgically.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193676. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3676
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ONCOLOGY

Association of Industry and Academic Sponsorship With Negative Phase 3 Oncology Trials and Reported Outcomes on Participant Survival: A Pooled Analysis

This study assesses whether an association exists between the sponsorship and conduct of a phase 3 randomized clinical trial investigating a cancer drug and the lack of supporting phase 2 trial evidence for that drug.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193684. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3684
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HEMATOLOGY

Risk and Risk Factors Associated With Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism Following Surgery in Patients With History of Venous Thromboembolism

This cohort study estimates the risk of and factors associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing surgery who have a history of venous thromboembolism.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193690. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3690
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY

Development and Validation of Machine Learning Models in Prediction of Remission in Patients With Moderate to Severe Crohn Disease

This cohort study describes 2 models for predicting the long-term response to ustekinumab therapy among patients with active Crohn disease.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193721. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3721
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DIABETES AND ENDOCRINOLOGY

Association Between Thyroid Disorders and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Adult Patients in Taiwan

This population-based case-control study investigates whether a diagnosis of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is associated with the development of colorectal cancer among adult patients in Taiwan.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193755. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3755
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Cancer Screening Patterns Among Current, Former, and Never Smokers in the United States, 2010-2015

This cross-sectional study using National Health Interview Survey data assesses patterns of cancer screening among never, former, and current adult smokers in the United States in 2010-2015.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193759. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3759
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MEDICAL JOURNALS AND PUBLISHING

Payments From Pharmaceutical Companies to Authors Involved in the Valsartan Scandal in Japan

This cross-sectional analysis examines the characteristics and distribution of payments from pharmaceutical companies to researchers involved in the valsartan scandal in Japan.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193817. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3817
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Viremia Trajectories of HIV in HIV-Positive Women in the United States, 1994-2017

This cohort study examines the changes in viral suppression among HIV-positive women in the United States from 1994 to 2017.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193822. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3822
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

GLOBAL HEALTH

Microeconomic Costs, Insurance, and Catastrophic Health Spending Among Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction in India: Substudy of a Randomized Clinical Trial

This prespecified cross-sectional substudy of a randomized clinical trial evaluates individual- and household-level costs and impoverishing factors related to acute myocardial infarction to assess whether acute myocardial infarction is associated with substantial financial risk for patients in Kerala, India.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193831. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3831
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PSYCHIATRY

Trends in Suicide Among Youth Aged 10 to 19 Years in the United States, 1975 to 2016

This cross-sectional study investigates trends in suicide rates among US youth aged 10 to 19 years by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and method of suicide.

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JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193886. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3886
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Assessment of the Appropriateness of Antibiotic Prescriptions for Infection Prophylaxis Before Dental Procedures, 2011 to 2015

This cohort study assesses the appropriateness of antibiotic prophylaxis prescriptions for infection prophylaxis before dental procedures using Truven, a US national integrated health claims database.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193909. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3909
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HEALTH INFORMATICS

Association of Social and Behavioral Risk Factors With Earlier Onset of Adult Hypertension and Diabetes

This cohort study examines whether social and behavioral risk factors are associated with earlier onset of hypertension and/or diabetes among a clinical population of US adults.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193933. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3933
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY

Performance of a Deep Learning Model vs Human Reviewers in Grading Endoscopic Disease Severity of Patients With Ulcerative Colitis

This diagnostic study compares an automated deep learning model with experienced human reviewers in assessment of endoscopic diseases of adults with severity of ulcerative colitis.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193963. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3963
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MEDICAL EDUCATION

Development and Validation of a Tool to Measure Patient Assessment of Clinical Compassion

This cohort study describes the development and validation of a 5-item tool for measuring patient assessments of clinician compassion that can be used in conjunction with the Clinician and Group Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CG-CAHPS) survey.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193976. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3976
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ONCOLOGY

Assessment of Accuracy of Waterfall Plot Representations of Response Rates in Cancer Treatment Published in Medical Journals

This cross-sectional study of oncology articles in high–impact factor journals examines the frequency with which waterfall plots are used and measures the accuracy of these plots in representing response rate compared with investigator-assessed and centrally assessed rates.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193981. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3981
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NEPHROLOGY

Association of Hospitalization and Mortality Among Patients Initiating Dialysis With Hemodialysis Facility Ownership and Acquisitions

This study uses difference-in-differences analysis to evaluate the association between acquisitions of independent hemodialysis facilities by a hemodialysis chain and hospitalization and mortality rates among adult patients receiving dialysis.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193987. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3987
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PSYCHIATRY

Reported Levels of Upset in Youth After Routine Trauma Screening at Mental Health Clinics

This survey study investigates levels of upset reported by youths after routine trauma screening in mental health clinics in Norway.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194003. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4003
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PEDIATRICS

Association of Alternative Tobacco Product Initiation With Ownership of Tobacco Promotional Materials Among Adolescents and Young Adults

This cohort study estimates the association between ownership of alternative tobacco product (ATP) promotional materials and initiation of ATP or cigarette use among adolescents and young adults in California.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194006. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4006
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

SURGERY

Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Training in Surgery: Additional Analysis of the Mindful Surgeon Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial

This follow-up analysis of pilot randomized clinical trial data explores the potential benefits of mindfulness-based stress reduction for improving well-being among postgraduate year 1 surgery residents.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194108. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4108
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Association Between Adjuvant Chemotherapy Duration and Survival Among Patients With Stage II and III Colon Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the association between the duration of adjuvant chemotherapy and survival among individuals diagnosed as having stage II and III colon cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194154. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4154
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

CARDIOLOGY

Risk Factors Associated With Atrioventricular Block

This population-based cohort study identifies modifiable risk factors associated with atrioventricular block among community-dwelling respondents to the Mini-Finland Health Survey.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194176. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4176
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ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

Association of Breastfeeding and Air Pollution Exposure With Lung Function in Chinese Children

This cross-sectional study evaluates the association of air pollution exposure and having been breastfed or not with lung function among children in China.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194186. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4186
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

Mortality Among Professional American-Style Football Players and Professional American Baseball Players

This cohort study compares all-cause and cause-specific mortality (including deaths associated with cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases) between US National Football League (NFL) and Major League Baseball (MLB) players.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194223. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4223
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PUBLIC HEALTH

Association Between Life Purpose and Mortality Among US Adults Older Than 50 Years

This cohort study assesses whether an association exists between life purpose and all-cause or cause-specific mortality among adults older than 50 years of age who participated in the US Health and Retirement Study.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194270. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4270
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GERIATRICS

Posthospital Fall Injuries and 30-Day Readmissions in Adults 65 Years and Older

This cohort study of data from the Hospital Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Readmissions Database compares 30-day fall-related readmissions with other leading rehospitalization diagnoses in Medicare beneficiaries 65 years and older with a variety of index admissions.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194276. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4276
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NUTRITION, OBESITY, AND EXERCISE

Short- and Long-term Effects of a Mobile Phone App in Conjunction With Brief In-Person Counseling on Physical Activity Among Physically Inactive Women: The mPED Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial evaluates the effectiveness of a mobile phone app combined with brief in-person counseling for increasing physical activity levels among inactive women.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194281. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4281
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Comparison of Opioid Prescribing by Dentists in the United States and England

This cross-sectional study compares the rate of opioid prescriptions by dentists dispensed from outpatient pharmacies and health care settings in the United States and England in 2016.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194303. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4303
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PEDIATRICS

Effect of Exposure to Gun Violence in Video Games on Children’s Dangerous Behavior With Real Guns: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial explores whether children’s exposure to a violent video game increases dangerous behavior around firearms.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194319. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4319
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GERIATRICS

Association of Frailty and Postoperative Complications With Unplanned Readmissions After Elective Outpatient Surgery

This cohort study uses National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data to examine the association between frailty and 30-day unplanned readmissions after elective outpatient surgical procedures.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194330. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4330
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PATHOLOGY AND LABORATORY MEDICINE

Trends in the US and Canadian Pathologist Workforces From 2007 to 2017

This cross-sectional study examines changes in the number of pathologists compared with other physicians practicing in the United States and Canada from 2007 to 2017.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194337. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4337
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CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE

Association of Data Integration Technologies With Intensive Care Clinician Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis summarizes the published evidence on the association of user-centered data integration and visualization technologies with intensive care clinician performance.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194392. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4392
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HEMATOLOGY

Management of Chronic Pain in Adults Living With Sickle Cell Disease in the Era of the Opioid Epidemic: A Qualitative Study

This qualitative study interviews patients with sickle cell disease and identifies their views on how the current US opioid epidemic has affected the management of chronic and acute pain related to their disease.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194410. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4410
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Evaluation of Cancer-Based Criteria for Use in Mainstream BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genetic Testing in Patients With Breast Cancer

This quality improvement study and cost-effectiveness analysis evaluates mainstream genetic testing using cancer-based criteria to determine eligibility for BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing in patients with breast cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194428. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4428
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Development and Validation of an Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Detection Model by Large-Scale MicroRNA Profiling

This case-control study establishes and assesses the validity of a model using serum microRNAs (miRNAs) to distinguish patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from patients without cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194573. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4573
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

SUBSTANCE USE AND ADDICTION

National Trends in Cessation Counseling, Prescription Medication Use, and Associated Costs Among US Adult Cigarette Smokers

This cross-sectional study of multiyear Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data evaluates the association between socioeconomic factors, availability of cessation information or services, and cigarette smoking rates in adults in the United States.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194585. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4585
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PSYCHIATRY

Association of Different Types of Childhood Maltreatment With Emotional Responding and Response Control Among Youths

This cross-sectional study examines the association of amount and different type of childhood maltreatment with responsiveness in regions of the brain implicated in emotional responding and response control in youths.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194604. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4604
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HEALTH POLICY

Comparison of Hospital Readmission After Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty vs Spinal Surgery After Implementation of the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program

This cohort study examines whether the US Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program was associated with a greater decrease in readmissions after targeted procedures (total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty) compared with similar nontargeted procedures (lumbar spine fusion and laminectomy).

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194634. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4634
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

CARDIOLOGY

Association of Trajectory of Cardiovascular Health Score and Incident Cardiovascular Disease

This population-based study examines changes in cardiovascular health status assessed by the Cardiovascular Health Score of Chinese adults over 5 years.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194758. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4758
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NEPHROLOGY

Association Between Tonsillectomy and Outcomes in Patients With Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy

This cohort study investigates the association between tonsillectomy and renal outcomes in patients with IgA nephropathy in Japan.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194772. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4772
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Trends in Prices of Popular Brand-Name Prescription Drugs in the United States

This economic evaluation study uses pharmaceutical insurance claims data to report the consistent rise in prices of commonly used prescription medicines in the United States.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194791. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4791
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NEUROLOGY

Association of Serum Cholesterol Levels With Peripheral Nerve Damage in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

This study investigates whether an association exists between serum cholesterol levels and peripheral nerve lesions in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without diabetic polyneuropathy.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194798. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4798
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

SURGERY

Patient Eligibility for Transoral Endocrine Surgery Procedures in the United States

This cross-sectional study evaluated 1000 thyroid and parathyroid operations performed at 3 US academic medical centers to assess the percentage of these operations that could be performed using transoral endocrine surgery, an approach that leaves no external scarring.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194829. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4829
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

CARDIOLOGY

Assessment of the Role of Carotid Atherosclerosis in the Association Between Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Ischemic Stroke Subtypes

This population-based cohort study examines the role of carotid atherosclerosis in the association between major cardiovascular risk factors and ischemic stroke.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194873. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4873
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CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE

Risk Factors at Index Hospitalization Associated With Longer-term Mortality in Adult Sepsis Survivors

This cohort study investigates the generic and sepsis-specific patient characteristics that are associated with long-term mortality in patients who survive hospitalization for sepsis.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194900. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4900
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CARDIOLOGY

Association of Preoperative Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors With Prevention of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation and Adverse Events: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates the association of preoperative renin-angiotensin system inhibitors with prevention of postoperative atrial fibrillation and adverse events among patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194934. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4934
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CARDIOLOGY

Reexamination of the UN10 Rule to Discontinue Resuscitation During In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

This cohort study assesses the performance of the UN10 clinical decision rule to predict futility during in-hospital cardiac arrest in a US national sample of patients who experienced in-hospital cardiac arrest.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194941. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4941
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PSYCHIATRY

Long-term Effects of Multimodal Treatment on Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms: Follow-up Analysis of the COMPAS Trial

This follow-up assessment of the Comparison of Methylphenidate and Psychotherapy in Adult ADHD Study (COMPAS), a multicenter randomized clinical trial, evaluates the long-term efficacy of multimodal treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194980. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4980
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MEDICAL JOURNALS AND PUBLISHING

Prevalence of Female Authors in Case Reports Published in the Medical Literature

This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of female authors of case studies published in medical journals in the United States.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e195000. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.5000
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EMERGENCY MEDICINE

Sex Disparities in Receipt of Bystander Interventions for Students Who Experienced Cardiac Arrest in Japan

This cohort study examines sex disparities among youths who experienced cardiac arrest in schools in receipt of public-access automated external defibrillator pad application and cardiopulmonary resuscitation from bystanders in Japan.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e195111. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.5111
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STATISTICS AND RESEARCH METHODS

Assessment of a Precision Medicine Analysis of a Behavioral Counseling Strategy to Improve Adherence to Diabetes Self-management Among Youth: A Post Hoc Analysis of the FLEX Trial

This post hoc precision medicine analysis of the Flexible Lifestyles Empowering Change (FLEX) trial estimates an individualized treatment rule to uncover subgroups of responders for key outcomes in diabetes self-management among youth.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e195137. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.5137
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open access Editorial

Combating Misrepresentation of Research Findings

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e192553. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2553
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Is Social Inequality in Cognitive Outcomes Increased by Preterm Birth–Related Complications?

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e192902. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2902
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Challenging the Pessimism in Providing Critical Care for Elderly Patients

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193201. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3201
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open access Invited Commentary

CARDIOLOGY

Improving Primary and Specialist Palliative Care in Cardiovascular Disease

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e192356. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2356
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ONCOLOGY

Keeping Checkpoint Inhibitors in Check

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e192546. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2546
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GERIATRICS

Comparative Efficacy of Multicomponent Behavioral Interventions for Mild Cognitive Impairment: Effects on Patient-Selected Outcomes

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193047. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3047
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NUTRITION, OBESITY, AND EXERCISE

Are Fruit Juices Just as Unhealthy as Sugar-Sweetened Beverages?

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193109. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3109
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HEALTH POLICY

Pharmaceutical Industry–Initiated Postapproval Studies—Not Requested by the US FDA, Little Value, and Many Questions

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193392. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3392
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ONCOLOGY

Decision Fatigue, Running Late, and Population Health Management—Screening Out of Time

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193402. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3402
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SURGERY

The Importance of Incorporating Frailty Screening Into Surgical Clinical Workflow

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193538. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3538
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GLOBAL HEALTH

Financial Toxicity of Acute Cardiovascular Disease in India: A Dive Beyond the Tip of an Iceberg

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193839. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3839
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Antibiotic Use in Dentistry—What We Know and Do Not Know

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193881. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3881
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PSYCHIATRY

Increasing Suicide Rates in Early Adolescent Girls in the United States and the Equalization of Sex Disparity in Suicide: The Need to Investigate the Role of Social Media

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193916. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3916
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NEPHROLOGY

Patient Outcomes and Dialysis Consolidation—Two Big to Fail?

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193962. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3962
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SURGERY

Mindfulness-Based Training Improves Technical Skills and Emotional Regulation for Surgical Residents

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194087. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4087
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ONCOLOGY

In Support of a Complex IDEA—A New Meta-analysis Supporting the Findings of the International Duration Evaluation of Adjuvant Therapy Collaboration

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194161. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4161
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OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

Considerations for Present and Future Research on Former Athlete Health and Well-being

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194222. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4222
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PATHOLOGY AND LABORATORY MEDICINE

How Many Pathologists Does the United States Need?

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194308. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4308
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PEDIATRICS

Gun Violence in Video Games and Subsequent Firearm Play: An Argument for the Safe Storage of Firearms

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194327. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4327
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HEALTH POLICY

A Decade Later, Lessons Learned From the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194594. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4594
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NEPHROLOGY

Tonsillectomy for the Management of Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194755. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4755
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open access Correction

Typographical Error in Byline

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194291. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4291
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Errors in eFigure Title and Caption in the Supplement

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194307. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4307
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Typographical Error in Conclusions

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194476. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4476
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Omission in Supplement

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e194723. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.4723
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Error in Discussion

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e195153. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.5153
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Error in Figure 2

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e195248. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.5248
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open access JAMA Network Open Masthead

JAMA Network Open

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(5):e193129. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.3129
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