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August 2019 - May 2018

Decade

Year

Issue

August 2019, Vol 2, No. 8

open access Original Investigation

PSYCHIATRY

Association of Parental Incarceration With Psychiatric and Functional Outcomes of Young Adults

This cohort study examines whether parental incarceration is associated with increased levels of psychiatric diagnosis and poor outcomes among young adults.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910005. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10005
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

GERIATRICS

Association Between Hormone Therapy and Muscle Mass in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates results of 12 randomized clinical trials, comparing changes in lean body mass in 4474 postmenopausal women who were vs were not receiving estrogen-based hormone therapy.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910154. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10154
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PUBLIC HEALTH

Comparison of Trends in Self-reported Cigarette Consumption and Sales in England, 2011 to 2018

This study compares estimates of changes in cigarette consumption in England between 2011 and 2018 using survey data from a nationally representative sample vs retail sales data.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910161. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10161
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

SUBSTANCE USE AND ADDICTION

Opioid Prescription Patterns and Risk Factors Associated With Opioid Use in the Netherlands

This cohort study uses nationwide data to determine opioid prescription patterns and survey data to examine risk factors associated with opioid prescription in the Netherlands.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910223. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10223
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

SURGERY

Defining Barriers and Facilitators to Advancement for Women in Academic Surgery

This qualitative study describes female surgeons’ perceptions of factors promoting and hindering their professional success in an academic setting.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910228. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10228
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PSYCHIATRY

Association of Cesarean Delivery With Risk of Neurodevelopmental and Psychiatric Disorders in the Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the association between birth by cesarean delivery and risk of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in the offspring compared with birth by vaginal delivery.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910236. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10236
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PULMONARY MEDICINE

Survival Associated With Sirolimus Plus Tacrolimus Maintenance Without Induction Therapy Compared With Standard Immunosuppression After Lung Transplant

This cohort study compares survival of US recipients of lung transplants receiving sirolimus plus tacrolimus vs standard maintenance therapy and evaluates which combination of induction and maintenance therapy is associated with the highest survival.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910297. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10297
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Effect of Sequential or Active Choice for Colorectal Cancer Screening Outreach: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This 3-arm pragmatic randomized clinical trial investigates response rates for offering colonoscopy only compared with sequential choice (colonoscopy and then fecal immunochemical testing) or active choice (colonoscopy or fecal immunochemical testing) through mailed outreach.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910305. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10305
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NEPHROLOGY

Association Between Declined Offers of Deceased Donor Kidney Allograft and Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Candidates

This cohort study examines outcomes for wait-listed kidney transplant candidates after a transplant center’s refusal of a deceased donor kidney offer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910312. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10312
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY

Comparison of Liver Transplant Wait-List Outcomes Among Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma With Public vs Private Medical Insurance

This cohort study compares wait-list outcomes by insurance type for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma awaiting liver transplant.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910326. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10326
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Association of Primary Care Clinic Appointment Time With Opioid Prescribing

This cross-sectional study of physician behavior examines whether the order and lateness of primary care appointments is associated with opioid prescribing.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910373. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10373
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH INFORMATICS

Prevalence of Financial Considerations Documented in Primary Care Encounters as Identified by Natural Language Processing Methods

This cohort study applies natural language processing to narrative clinical notes obtained from electronic health records of a US academic health system to analyze the frequency of financial conversations during adult primary care visits.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910399. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10399
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Perspectives of Patients With Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans on Diagnostic Delays, Surgical Outcomes, and Nonprotuberance

This survey study collaborates with patients with dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans through social media to evaluate sources of diagnostic delay, risk of recurrence, and flat presentation of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910413. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10413
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NUTRITION, OBESITY, AND EXERCISE

Associations of Chronic Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Severe Obesity With Mortality, Myocardial Infarction, Cancer, and Chronic Pulmonary Disease

This population-based cohort study among Canadian adults examines how the associations of severe obesity with adverse outcomes may be modified by the presence of systemic inflammation and/or insulin resistance.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910456. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10456
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Management Strategies and Patient Selection After a Hospital Funding Reform for Prostate Cancer Surgery in Canada

This population-based, interrupted time series study evaluates whether changes in hospital funding policy in Ontario, Canada, aimed at improving health care quality and value were associated with changes in the management of localized prostate cancer or the characteristics of patients receiving radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910505. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10505
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

SUBSTANCE USE AND ADDICTION

Identifying Smoking Environments From Images of Daily Life With Deep Learning

This cross-sectional study assesses the utility of deep learning for identifying environments and objects associated with smoking.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e197939. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.7939
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY

Effect of First-line S-1 Plus Oxaliplatin With or Without Ramucirumab Followed by Paclitaxel Plus Ramucirumab on Advanced Gastric Cancer in East Asia: The Phase 2 RAINSTORM Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial investigates the efficacy and safety of adding ramucirumab to first-line therapy with S-1 and oxaliplatin among East Asian adults with advanced gastric cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198243. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8243
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

CARDIOLOGY

Associations of Aerobic Fitness and Maximal Muscular Strength With Metabolites in Young Men

This cross-sectional study of young Finnish men examines the associations of aerobic fitness and muscular strength with metabolome measures that are associated with cardiometabolic risks.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198265. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8265
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PEDIATRICS

Referral for Ophthalmology Evaluation and Visual Sequelae in Children With Primary Brain Tumors

This cohort study investigates the rate of ophthalmology referral, the prevalence of visual sequelae, and the association between tumor characteristics and ophthalmologic diagnoses in pediatric patients with primary brain tumors.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198273. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8273
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PUBLIC HEALTH

Rates of Physician Coprescribing of Opioids and Benzodiazepines After the Release of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines in 2016

This cohort study evaluates whether the 2016 release of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for opioid prescribing was associated with changes in the rates of opioid and benzodiazepine coprescription among commercially insured patients and US Medicare Advantage beneficiaries.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198325. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8325
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

MEDICAL EDUCATION

Machine Learning Identification of Surgical and Operative Factors Associated With Surgical Expertise in Virtual Reality Simulation

This case series study identifies surgical and operative factors selected by a machine learning algorithm to classify individuals by level of expertise in a virtual reality surgical procedure.

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JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198363. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8363
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

CARDIOLOGY

Characteristics of the Quality Improvement Content of Cardiac Catheterization Peer Reviews in the Veterans Affairs Clinical Assessment, Reporting, and Tracking Program

This quality improvement study characterizes the content of cardiac catheterization peer reviews in the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Clinical Assessment, Reporting, and Tracking (CART) program.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198393. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8393
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

GERIATRICS

Global Incidence of Frailty and Prefrailty Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis estimates the global incidence of frailty and prefrailty among community-dwelling adults 60 years or older.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198398. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8398
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Development and Testing of Improved Models to Predict Payment Using Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Claims Data

This comparative effectiveness research study assesses whether using present on admission codes and single, rather than grouped, diagnostic codes can enhance Centers for Medicare & Medicaid (CMS) models to predict payment for hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198406. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8406
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PSYCHIATRY

Association of Primary Care Continuity With Outcomes Following Transition to Adult Care for Adolescents With Severe Mental Illness

This population-based cohort study assesses the association between primary care continuity from pediatric to adult health care services during adolescence and outcomes in young adulthood for patients with severe mental illness in Ontario, Canada.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198415. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8415
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

GENETICS AND GENOMICS

Changes in Bone Mineral Density After Prophylactic Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy in Carriers of a BRCA Mutation

This cohort study evaluates the association of prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with bone mineral density loss among women with a BRCA mutation.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198420. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8420
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

IMAGING

Comparison of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Targeted Biopsy With Systematic Biopsy Alone for the Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates whether magnetic resonance imaging combined with targeted biopsy is associated with improved detection of clinically significant prostate cancer compared with transrectal ultrasonography–guided systematic prostate biopsy alone.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198427. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8427
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH INFORMATICS

Primary Care Practices’ Ability to Report Electronic Clinical Quality Measures in the EvidenceNOW Southwest Initiative to Improve Heart Health

This quality improvement study evaluates time to reporting electronic clinical quality measures for US primary care practices.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198569. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8569
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Comparison of 3 Safety-Net Hospital Definitions and Association With Hospital Characteristics

This cross-sectional study examines characteristics of safety-net hospitals as classified under 3 common definitions based on Medicare Disproportionate Share Hospital payments, Medicaid and uninsured caseload, and uncompensated care costs.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198577. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8577
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

GERIATRICS

Effect of Telephone-Delivered Collaborative Goal Setting and Behavioral Activation vs Enhanced Usual Care for Depression Among Adults With Uncontrolled Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial compares the effectiveness of telephone-delivered collaborative goal setting and behavioral activation vs enhanced usual care for depression symptoms among US veterans with uncontrolled diabetes.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198634. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8634
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

EMERGENCY MEDICINE

Identification of Emergency Care–Sensitive Conditions and Characteristics of Emergency Department Utilization

This cross-sectional study identifies a set of emergency care–sensitive conditions to provide benchmark US national estimates of acute care utilization for these conditions.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198642. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8642
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Trends in Medical Aid in Dying in Oregon and Washington

This cohort study evaluates and compares patterns of the use of medical aid in dying in Oregon and Washington State.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198648. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8648
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PEDIATRICS

Efficacy of a Technology-Enhanced Community Health Nursing Intervention vs Standard of Care for Female Adolescents and Young Adults With Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial examines the efficacy of a technology-enhanced community health nursing intervention for improving pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) self-management and longitudinal prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198652. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8652
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE

Long-term Host Immune Response Trajectories Among Hospitalized Patients With Sepsis

This multicenter cohort study of adults who have survived hospitalization for sepsis assesses whether abnormalities in the host immune response during hospitalization for sepsis persist after discharge.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198686. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8686
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PSYCHIATRY

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mortality Risk in Taiwan

This nationwide cohort study in Taiwan evaluates whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with higher risk of mortality from all causes, suicide, unintentional injury, homicide, and natural causes.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198714. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8714
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PULMONARY MEDICINE

Development and Performance of the Pulmonary Embolism Result Forecast Model (PERFORM) for Computed Tomography Clinical Decision Support

This diagnostic study evaluates whether a machine learning model, the Pulmonary Embolism Result Forecast Model (PERFORM), can compute a patient-specific risk score for pulmonary embolism as clinical decision support for computed tomography.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198719. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8719
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Trends in the Use of Cardiac Imaging for Patients With Heart Failure in Canada

This cross-sectional study investigates temporal trends in the use and costs of cardiac imaging for patients with heart failure in Canada and examines the association between the institution of an accreditation program and the use of echocardiography.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198766. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8766
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Assessment of Machine Learning of Breast Pathology Structures for Automated Differentiation of Breast Cancer and High-Risk Proliferative Lesions

This diagnostic study evaluates computer vision methods to assist pathologists in diagnosing breast biopsy samples, from benign to invasive cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198777. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8777
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

CARDIOLOGY

Cardiovascular Adverse Events Associated With BRAF and MEK Inhibitors: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis determines the association of BRAF and MEK inhibitor treatment with cardiovascular adverse events in patients with melanoma compared with BRAF inhibitor monotherapy.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198890. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8890
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

DIABETES AND ENDOCRINOLOGY

Comparison of Pheochromocytoma-Specific Morbidity and Mortality Among Adults With Bilateral Pheochromocytomas Undergoing Total Adrenalectomy vs Cortical-Sparing Adrenalectomy

This cohort study compares outcomes associated with cortical-sparing adrenalectomy vs total adrenalectomy for patients with bilateral pheochromocytomas.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198898. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8898
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NEPHROLOGY

Association of Extreme Heat Events With Hospital Admission or Mortality Among Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease

This study examines the association of extreme heat events in 3 northeastern US cities with hospital admission and mortality among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198904. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8904
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PEDIATRICS

Association Between Age at Puberty and Bone Accrual From 10 to 25 Years of Age

This cohort study of healthy individuals in England who underwent repeated bone density scans from ages 10 to 25 years describes the association between the timing of puberty and bone mineral density.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198918. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8918
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

UROLOGY

Variation in Practice Patterns and Reimbursements Between Female and Male Urologists for Medicare Beneficiaries

This cohort study uses the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Provider Payments database to identify whether sex-based discrepancies exist in clinical practice, reimbursement payments, and geographic distributions in the urological specialty.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198956. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8956
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PSYCHIATRY

Longitudinal Association of Depression Symptoms With Cognition and Cortical Amyloid Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

This cohort study investigates the longitudinal association between depressive symptoms, cognition, and cortical amyloid in unimpaired community-dwelling older adults in the Harvard Aging Brain Study.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198964. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8964
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

IMAGING

Assessment of Nonradioactive Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomographic Imaging With Conventional Lymphoscintigraphic Imaging for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Melanoma

This cross-sectional study evaluates use of nonradioactive multispectral optoacoustic tomographic vs lymphoscintigraphic imaging for biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with melanoma.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199020. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9020
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ORTHOPEDICS

Operative vs Nonoperative Treatment for Atraumatic Rotator Cuff Tears: A Trial Protocol for the Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Pragmatic Randomized Clinical Trial

This is a trial protocol for the Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff trial, an ongoing randomized clinical trial to examine the effectiveness of operative vs nonoperative treatment for atraumatic rotator cuff tears, with patient-reported Shoulder Pain and Disability Index score as the primary outcome.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199050. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9050
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Inclusion of Real-Time Hand Hygiene Observation and Feedback in a Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy in Low-Resource Settings

This quality improvement study uses a novel data collection and visualization tool to audit hand hygiene adherence before and after training among health care workers in low-resource settings at 2 hospitals in Nigeria.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199118. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9118
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Association of Timing of Adjuvant Therapy With Survival in Patients With Resected Stage I to II Pancreatic Cancer

This cohort study evaluates the ideal timing of adjuvant therapy for patients with stage I to II resected pancreatic cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199126. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9126
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Association Between Clinical Practice Group Adherence to Quality Measures and Adverse Outcomes Among Adult Patients With Diabetes

This cross-sectional analysis examines the associations among clinical practice group performance on quality measures, including process measures, disease control measures, and utilization-based outcomes, among adults treated for diabetes.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199139. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9139
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ALLERGY

Prevalence and Severity of Sesame Allergy in the United States

This cross-sectional, population-based study provides current estimates of the prevalence, severity, distribution, and clinical characteristics of sesame allergy in US adults and children.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199144. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9144
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ONCOLOGY

Adverse Events Associated With the Use of Sipuleucel-T Reported to the US Food and Drug Administration’s Adverse Event Reporting System, 2010-2017

This case series uses data from the US Food and Drug Administration’s Adverse Event Reporting System to assess the postmarketing safety profile of sipuleucel-T.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199249. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9249
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Changes in Age Distribution of Obesity-Associated Cancers

This cross-sectional study examines temporal shifts in age distribution of obesity-associated cancers and non–obesity-associated cancers across race/ethnicity- and sex-specific strata.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199261. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9261
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

MEDICAL EDUCATION

Assessment of Patient Nondisclosures to Clinicians of Experiencing Imminent Threats

This survey study assesses how often patients choose not to disclose to their clinicians imminent threats to their well-being (depression, suicidality, abuse, and sexual assault) and examines patient reasons for nondisclosure.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199277. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9277
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

CARDIOLOGY

Association of Optimal Blood Pressure With Critical Cardiorenal Events and Mortality in High-Risk and Low-Risk Patients Treated With Antihypertension Medications

This population-based cohort study assesses whether the optimal level of treated blood pressure varies between patients with more vs fewer risk factors among adults in Korea.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199307. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9307
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PEDIATRICS

Hospital Utilization Among Rural Children Served by Pediatric Neurology Telemedicine Clinics

This cross-sectional study of pediatric neurology patients residing in rural areas compares rates of hospital encounters for patients who had outpatient telemedicine consultations vs those who visited neurology clinics in person.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199364. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9364
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Feasibility of Core Antimicrobial Stewardship Interventions in Community Hospitals

This multicenter nonrandomized clinical trial with crossover design study determines the feasibility and results of implementing 2 core stewardship intervention strategies, preauthorization and postprescription audit and review, in community hospitals.

has audio
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199369. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9369
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GLOBAL HEALTH

Effect of Bismuth Subsalicylate vs Placebo on Use of Antibiotics Among Adult Outpatients With Diarrhea in Pakistan: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial compares antibiotic use among adult patients in Pakistan receiving bismuth subsalicylate vs placebo for diarrhea.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199441. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9441
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE

Agreement Between Arterial Carbon Dioxide Levels With End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide Levels and Associated Factors in Children Hospitalized With Traumatic Brain Injury

This secondary analysis of a cohort study examines agreement between partial pressure of carbon dioxide, arterial (Paco2) and end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) and associated factors in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI).

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199448. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9448
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

EMERGENCY MEDICINE

Incidence of Pediatric Cannabis Exposure Among Children and Teenagers Aged 0 to 19 Years Before and After Medical Marijuana Legalization in Massachusetts

This cross-sectional study investigates the number of pediatric cannabis exposure cases reported to a regional poison control center before vs after medical marijuana legalization in Massachusetts.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199456. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9456
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PEDIATRICS

Effect of Primary Care Parent-Targeted Interventions on Parent-Adolescent Communication About Sexual Behavior and Alcohol Use: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial evaluates the efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of a parent-targeted intervention for parent-adolescent communication about sexual health and alcohol use.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199535. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9535
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HEALTH INFORMATICS

Patient Perspectives About Decisions to Share Medical Data and Biospecimens for Research

This survey study examines the association between various presentations of consent forms and differences in electronic health record and biospecimen sharing rates among patients.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199550. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9550
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GERIATRICS

Sex-Specific Differences in End-of-Life Burdensome Interventions and Antibiotic Therapy in Nursing Home Residents With Advanced Dementia

This population-based cohort study examines the sex-based variations in burdensome interventions (care transitions, invasive procedures, and use of physical restraints) and antibiotic therapy at the very end of life among nursing home residents with advanced dementia in Ontario, Canada.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199557. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9557
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Assessing the Justification, Funding, Success, and Survival Outcomes of Randomized Noninferiority Trials of Cancer Drugs: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis

This systematic review and pooled analysis of randomized noninferiority trials of cancer drugs assesses the association of justification for using noninferiority design and success in achieving noninferiority with the funding of these trials and the association of these trials with patient survival.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199570. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9570
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HEALTH INFORMATICS

Association of Electronic Health Record Design and Use Factors With Clinician Stress and Burnout

This survey study determines which electronic health record (EHR) design and use factors are associated with clinician stress and burnout and identifies other sources that contribute to this problem.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199609. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9609
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PULMONARY MEDICINE

Effect of Physical Activity Coaching on Acute Care and Survival Among Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pragmatic Randomized Clinical Trial

This pragmatic randomized clinical trial evaluates the long-term effectiveness of a community-based physical activity coaching intervention on acute care and survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199657. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9657
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GERIATRICS

Measurement of Fall Injury With Health Care System Data and Assessment of Inclusiveness and Validity of Measurement Models

This diagnostic study uses Health and Retirement Survey and linked Medicare data to develop and validate an administrative approach to identifying older adults with fall-related injuries and to quantify the inclusiveness and validity across a spectrum of potential diagnoses of fall-related injuries.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199679. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9679
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ONCOLOGY

Comparison of Survival Rates After a Combination of Local Treatment and Systemic Therapy vs Systemic Therapy Alone for Treatment of Stage IV Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

This comparative effectiveness research study assesses whether the addition of local treatment of the primary tumor site in stage IV non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) provides a survival benefit compared with systemic therapy alone.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199702. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9702
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Forecasted Size of Measles Outbreaks Associated With Vaccination Exemptions for Schoolchildren

This study uses a decision analytical model to simulate measles outbreaks in metropolitan areas in Texas using 2018 and future reduced vaccination rates.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199768. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9768
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PSYCHIATRY

Cost-effectiveness of Housing First Intervention With Intensive Case Management Compared With Treatment as Usual for Homeless Adults With Mental Illness: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial

This economic evaluation study investigates the cost-effectiveness of the Housing First intervention with Intensive Case Management compared with treatment as usual among homeless adults with mental illness.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199782. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9782
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CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE

Association of Severe Hyperoxemia Events and Mortality Among Patients Admitted to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

This cohort study examines whether severe hyperoxemia events are associated with mortality among children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199812. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9812
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Effect of Prices, Distribution Strategies, and Marketing on Demand for HIV Self-testing in Zimbabwe: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial evaluates the effectiveness of various pricing and distribution methods for a self-administered test for HIV diagnosis in Zimbabwe.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199818. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9818
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NEUROLOGY

Association of Plasma Amylin Concentration With Alzheimer Disease and Brain Structure in Older Adults

This cohort study uses data from second-generation participants in the Framingham Heart Study to analyze the association of plasma amylin concentration with Alzheimer disease risk and brain structure.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199826. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9826
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NUTRITION, OBESITY, AND EXERCISE

Effect of Different Financial Incentive Structures on Promoting Physical Activity Among Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial examines whether it is more effective to disburse fixed total financial incentives at a constant, increasing, or decreasing rate to encourage physical activity among pedometer-wearing adults.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199863. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9863
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY

Association of Maternal Age With Severe Maternal Morbidity and Mortality in Canada

This nationwide population-based cohort study investigates the association of maternal age, adjusting for patient-level and hospital-level factors, with severe maternal morbidity and maternal death in Canada.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199875. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9875
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NEUROLOGY

Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality in Caregivers of Patients With Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis quantifies the extent, nature, and treatability of sleep problems in caregivers of patients with dementia.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199891. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9891
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Association of Mental Health Disorders With Health Care Utilization and Costs Among Adults With Chronic Disease

This population-based cohort study determines the association of mental health disorders with health care utilization and costs for Canadian adults with chronic disease.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199910. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9910
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ORTHOPEDICS

Prevalence of Deep Surgical Site Infection After Repair of Periarticular Knee Fractures: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the prevalence of deep surgical site infections after surgical repair of periarticular knee fractures, and the prevalence of septic arthritis, common microorganisms in infection cultures, and covariates associated with surgical site infections.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199951. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9951
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NEUROLOGY

Association of Restless Legs Syndrome With Risk of Suicide and Self-harm

This cohort study of commercially insured US individuals examines the association between restless legs syndrome and risk of suicide and self-harm.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199966. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9966
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
open access Editorial

USPSTF Recommendations for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Testing in the Context of a Transformative National Cancer Control Plan

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910142. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10142
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

Physical Activity, Fitness, and Cardiovascular Health: Insights From Publications in JAMA Network Open

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198343. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8343
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open access Invited Commentary

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Science Should Drive Vaccine Policy

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910170. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10170
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

SURGERY

Knowing Better and Doing Better to Advance Women in Academic Surgery

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910211. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10211
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

You Should Get Screened for Colon Cancer, Really

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910452. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10452
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

MEDICAL EDUCATION

Artificial Intelligence and Training Physicians to Perform Technical Procedures

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198375. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8375
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

IMAGING

The Evolving Paradigm of Prostate Cancer Screening

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198392. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8392
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GERIATRICS

The Dynamics of Frailty Among Older Adults

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198438. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8438
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Refining the Definition of US Safety-Net Hospitals to Improve Population Health

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198562. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8562
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Physician-Assisted Suicide and the Perils of Empirical Ethical Research

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198628. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8628
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Use of Cardiac Imaging in Canada—Missing the Trees for the Forest

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198700. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8700
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PSYCHIATRY

Depression Synergy With Amyloid and Increased Risk of Cognitive Decline in Preclinical Alzheimer Disease

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198970. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8970
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ALLERGY

Sesame: The New Priority Allergen?

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199149. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9149
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Postmarketing Analysis of Sipuleucel-T—The Importance of Real-World Data

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199233. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9233
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Adapting Antibiotic Stewardship to the Community Hospital

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JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199356. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9356
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH INFORMATICS

Data Sharing For Research—Encouraging Signs Amid Ethical Tensions

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199732. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9732
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

The Enduring Debate Over Cost Sharing for Essential Public Health Tools

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199810. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9810
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NUTRITION, OBESITY, AND EXERCISE

Using Multiple Financial Incentive Structures to Promote Sustainable Changes in Health Behaviors

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199859. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9859
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
open access Research Letter

PUBLIC HEALTH

Trends in the Prevalence of Exposure to e-Cigarette Aerosol in Public Places Among US Middle and High School Students, 2015 to 2018

This survey study examines trends in and factors associated with exposure to secondhand smoke from combusted tobacco and secondhand aerosol from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) among US youth from 2015 to 2018.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1910184. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10184
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

MEDICAL EDUCATION

Gender Disparities in Work and Parental Status Among Early Career Physicians

This survey study examines how gender disparities are associated with attrition from the workforce and how family considerations are associated with decisions about how much to work.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198340. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8340
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Evolving Practice Patterns in the Use of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer

This survey study compares use of prophylactic cranial irradiation in patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer before and after the publication of a phase 3 trial that demonstrated no overall survival benefit for this therapy.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199135. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9135
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PSYCHIATRY

Firearm Availability and Storage Practices Among Military Personnel Who Have Thought About Suicide

This cross-sectional study examines firearm ownership and storage practices among US military personnel who have experienced thoughts of suicide.

has audio
JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199160. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9160
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH INFORMATICS

Assessment of Patient Use of a New Approach to Access Health Record Data Among 12 US Health Systems

This cross-sectional study measures patient use of smartphone applications to download health record data.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199544. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9544
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

STATISTICS AND RESEARCH METHODS

Use of Prediction Intervals in Network Meta-analysis

This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of reporting prediction intervals in network meta-analysis articles and provides a worked example.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199735. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9735
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

MEDICAL EDUCATION

Development and Implementation of a Hands-on Surgical Pipeline Program for Low-Income High School Students

This qualitative study describes the development and implementation of a hands-on surgical pipeline program for low-income high school students.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199991. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9991
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
open access Correction

Error in Supplement

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1911052. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11052
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Error in Ninth Paragraph

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1911076. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11076
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Error in Discussion

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1911235. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11235
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Error in Figure 3C

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1911247. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11247
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Errors in Tables 3 and 4

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1911452. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11452
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Numeric Error in Key Points Findings

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e1911650. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11650
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Error in Abstract, Text, and Table

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e199999. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9999
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open access JAMA Network Open Masthead

JAMA Network Open

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(8):e198561. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.8561
Abstract Full Text
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