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May 2022 - May 2018

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September 2019, Vol 2, No. 9

open access Original Investigation

NEUROLOGY

Alcohol Consumption and Risk of Dementia and Cognitive Decline Among Older Adults With or Without Mild Cognitive Impairment

This cohort study examines the association between alcohol intake and risk of dementia among older adults with or without mild cognitive impairment.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910319. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10319
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PUBLIC HEALTH

Association of Childhood History of Parental Incarceration and Juvenile Justice Involvement With Mental Health in Early Adulthood

This cross-sectional study examines whether a childhood history of exposure to parental incarceration and/or juvenile justice involvement is associated with mental health outcomes in early adulthood.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910465. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10465
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

MEDICAL EDUCATION

Trends in Racial/Ethnic Representation Among US Medical Students

This cross-sectional study examines trends in racial/ethnic representation among US medical school applicants and matriculants relative to the overall age-adjusted US population.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910490. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10490
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Association of Exposure to Diagnostic Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation With Risk of Cancer Among Youths in South Korea

This cohort study examines the association of low-dose radiation exposure in youths with risk of cancer using South Korean national health insurance data.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910584. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10584
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Association of National Cancer Institute–Sponsored Clinical Trial Network Group Studies With Guideline Care and New Drug Indications

This cohort study examines the association of National Cancer Institute Clinical Trial Network studies with practice influence, measured as guideline care and new drug indications for treatment of patients with cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910593. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10593
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Quality of Home Health Agencies Serving Traditional Medicare vs Medicare Advantage Beneficiaries

This cross-sectional study compares the quality of home health agencies that serve traditional Medicare beneficiaries vs beneficiaries enrolled in high-quality or low-quality Medicare Advantage plans.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910622. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10622
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PHARMACY AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Varenicline and Nicotine Replacement Use Associated With US Food and Drug Administration Drug Safety Communications

This cross-sectional study uses data from the Veterans Health Administration and Medicaid to examine changes in varenicline prescribing from the time of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval through publication and removal of public health advisories.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910626. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10626
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NEPHROLOGY

Quality of Chronic Kidney Disease Management in Canadian Primary Care

This cross-sectional study assesses chronic kidney disease management in Canadian primary care practices to identify care gaps to guide development and implementation of national quality improvement initiatives.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910704. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10704
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ANESTHESIOLOGY

Opioid Prescribing After Surgery in the United States, Canada, and Sweden

This cohort study determines whether there are differences in the frequency, amount, and type of opioids dispensed after surgery among the United States, Canada, and Sweden.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910734. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10734
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH INFORMATICS

Effect of an Electronic Medication Reconciliation Intervention on Adverse Drug Events: A Cluster Randomized Trial

This cluster randomized trial evaluates whether electronic medication reconciliation reduces medication discrepancies, adverse drug events, and other adverse outcomes compared with usual care.

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JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910756. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10756
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NEUROLOGY

Assessment of the End Point Adjudication Process on the Results of the Platelet-Oriented Inhibition in New TIA and Minor Ischemic Stroke (POINT) Trial: A Secondary Analysis

This secondary analysis of an international randomized clinical trial investigates the results of the adjudicated end point process in the Platelet-Oriented Inhibition in New TIA and Minor Ischemic Stroke (POINT) trial by comparing end points assessed by local site investigators with centrally adjudicated end points.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910769. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10769
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

EMERGENCY MEDICINE

Association of Race/Ethnicity With Emergency Department Destination of Emergency Medical Services Transport

This cohort study examines the patterns of emergency department destination of emergency medical services transport for black, Hispanic, and white Medicare beneficiaries residing in the same area.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910816. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10816
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PSYCHIATRY

Association Between Childhood Behavioral Problems and Insomnia Symptoms in Adulthood

This cohort study investigates the association between behavioral problems at 5, 10, and 16 years of age and self-reported insomnia symptoms at 42 years of age.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910861. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10861
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Characteristics and Health Care Utilization of Different Segments of a Multiethnic Asian Population in Singapore

This cross-sectional study using data from Singapore national health records examines the sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, health care utilization, and health care cost patterns for different segments of a multiethnic Asian population.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910878. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10878
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

DIABETES AND ENDOCRINOLOGY

Association of Birth Weight With Type 2 Diabetes and Glycemic Traits: A Mendelian Randomization Study

This mendelian randomization study examines the association of birth weight with type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910915. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10915
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PSYCHIATRY

Contextual Factors Associated With County-Level Suicide Rates in the United States, 1999 to 2016

This cross-sectional study estimates suicide rates and trajectories in the United States, assesses associated county-level contextual factors, and explores variation across the rural-urban continuum.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910936. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10936
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Latent Tuberculosis Infection Testing Strategies for HIV-Positive Individuals in Hong Kong

This decision analytical model analyzes the cost-effectiveness of latent tuberculosis infection testing for individuals in Hong Kong with HIV who had negative latent tuberculosis infection test results at baseline.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910960. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10960
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH INFORMATICS

Prevalence and Predictability of Low-Yield Inpatient Laboratory Diagnostic Tests

This diagnostic study uses machine learning models to assess the prevalence of low-yield inpatient laboratory tests.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910967. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10967
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

UROLOGY

Magnetic Resonance Imaging–Guided Confirmatory Biopsy for Initiating Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer

This cohort study examines the association of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)−guided confirmatory prostate biopsy findings with the risk of pathologic disease upgrading during active surveillance for prostate cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911019. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11019
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PEDIATRICS

Associations of Socioeconomic Deprivation and Preterm Birth With Speech, Language, and Communication Concerns Among Children Aged 27 to 30 Months

This cohort study investigates the associations of neighborhood disadvantage, gestational age, and English as a first language with speech, language, and communication concerns at age 27 to 30 months among children in Scotland.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911027. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11027
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PUBLIC HEALTH

Self-reported Rates of Abuse, Neglect, and Bullying Experienced by Transgender and Gender-Nonbinary Adolescents in China

This survey study assesses the rates of abuse, neglect, and bullying experienced at home or in school by transgender and gender-nonbinary adolescents in China and the associations of these experiences with mental health.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911058. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11058
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PEDIATRICS

Cost Minimization Analysis of Same-Day Long-Acting Reversible Contraception for Adolescents

This economic evaluation study uses a cost model to analyze Indiana Medicaid’s cost savings associated with providing adolescents with same-day access to long-acting reversible contraception compared with requiring a second visit for placement.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911063. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11063
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Association of Fat Body Mass With Vertebral Fractures in Postmenopausal Women With Early Breast Cancer Undergoing Adjuvant Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy

This cross-sectional study evaluates whether fat body mass is associated with vertebral fracture prevalence among postmenopausal women undergoing adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911080. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11080
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

STATISTICS AND RESEARCH METHODS

US Food and Drug Administration Approvals of Drugs and Devices Based on Nonrandomized Clinical Trials: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses how often the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized novel interventions based on nonrandomized clinical trials and whether there is an association of the magnitude of treatment effects with FDA requirements for additional testing.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911111. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11111
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PUBLIC HEALTH

Effect of MyTeen SMS-Based Mobile Intervention for Parents of Adolescents: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial evaluates the effectiveness of a text-messaging program, MyTeen, for promoting parental competence and mental health literacy for parents of adolescents.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911120. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11120
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

GENETICS AND GENOMICS

A Genetic Approach to the Association Between PCSK9 and Sepsis

This cohort study tests the associations between PCSK9 genetic variants, a PCSK9 genetic risk score, or genetically estimated PCSK9 expression levels and the risk of sepsis among patients admitted to a hospital with infection.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911130. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11130
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

EMERGENCY MEDICINE

Association of Emergency Clinicians' Assessment of Mortality Risk With Actual 1-Month Mortality Among Older Adults Admitted to the Hospital

This cohort study examines the accuracy of clinicians’ assessments of mortality risk among older adults admitted to the hospital from the emergency department compared with the actual 1-month mortality of these patients.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911139. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11139
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Association of Liver-Directed Local Therapy With Overall Survival in Adults With Metastatic Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

This cohort study compares the overall survival of patients with metastatic intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma treated with chemotherapy alone vs chemotherapy with definitive liver-directed local therapy.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911154. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11154
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

GLOBAL HEALTH

Effect of a Prize-Linked Savings Intervention on Savings and Healthy Behaviors Among Men in Kenya: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial evaluates the effect of prize-linked savings accounts, compared with standard-interest savings accounts, on savings behavior and expenditures on alcohol, gambling, and transactional sex among men in Kenya.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911162. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11162
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION

Quantitative Eye Gaze and Movement Differences in Visuomotor Adaptations to Varying Task Demands Among Upper-Extremity Prosthesis Users

This cross-sectional study examines whether task selection is a factor in visuomotor adaptation strategies to perform goal-directed object movement tasks in individuals with an upper-limb prosthesis compared with individuals with normal arm function.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911197. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11197
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PUBLIC HEALTH

Association of the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief’s Funding With Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Kenya

This population-based survey study examines the extent to which the decrease in child mortality in Kenya is associated with the US President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) funding for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911318. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11318
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PEDIATRICS

Co-occurrence of Violence-Related Risk and Protective Behaviors and Adult Support Among Male Youth in Urban Neighborhoods

This cross-sectional study examines associations between adult support and patterns of violence and risk and protective behavior co-occurrence among male youths in urban neighborhoods.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911375. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11375
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PSYCHIATRY

Age and Birth Cohort–Adjusted Rates of Suicide Mortality Among US Male and Female Youths Aged 10 to 19 Years From 1999 to 2017

This cross-sectional study examines time trends and sex differences in the suicide mortality rate among US youths adjusted for birth cohort and age.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911383. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11383
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Concordance Between Electronic Clinical Documentation and Physicians’ Observed Behavior

This case series study examines how closely documentation in electronic health records matches the review of systems and physical examination performed by emergency physicians.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911390. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11390
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PEDIATRICS

Working Memory Development and Motor Vehicle Crashes in Young Drivers

This cohort study investigates the association between working memory development in young drivers and motor vehicle crashes.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911421. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11421
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PEDIATRICS

Association of Timing of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Caregiver Support With Regionally Specific Brain Development in Adolescents

This cohort study assesses the timing and regional specificity of the association of adverse childhood experiences and caregiver support with structural development of limbic and striatal brain regions in middle childhood and adolescence.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911426. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11426
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Prevalence of Screening for Food Insecurity, Housing Instability, Utility Needs, Transportation Needs, and Interpersonal Violence by US Physician Practices and Hospitals

This cross-sectional study uses national survey data to assess the percentage of US hospitals and physician practices that screen patients for food insecurity, housing instability, utility needs, transportation needs, and interpersonal violence and to compare characteristics between screening and nonscreening entities.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911514. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11514
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Variation in the Assessment of Immune-Related Adverse Event Occurrence, Grade, and Timing in Patients Receiving Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

This cross-sectional study assesses the concordance of algorithm-driven medical record review by medical oncologists for the characterization of 8 immune-related adverse events in patients with cancer treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911519. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11519
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH INFORMATICS

Physician Perceptions of the Use of Social Media for Recruitment of Patients in Cancer Clinical Trials

This qualitative study examines physician attitudes toward and perceptions of social media use for therapeutic trial recruitment of patients with cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911528. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11528
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PEDIATRICS

Effect of the Promoting Resilience in Stress Management Intervention for Parents of Children With Cancer (PRISM-P): A Randomized Clinical Trial

This phase 2 randomized clinical trial compares the effects of individual- or group-based delivery of the novel intervention Promoting Resilience in Stress Management for Parents (PRISM-P) with the effects of usual care on improved self-reported resilience among parents of children receiving a new diagnosis of cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911578. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11578
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PHARMACY AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Comparison of Prescribing Patterns Before and After Implementation of a National Policy to Reduce Inappropriate Alprazolam Prescribing in Australia

This interrupted time series analysis and cross-sectional study examines changes in alprazolam prescribing patterns after a national policy change that reduced alprazolam subsidies in Australia.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911590. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11590
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

UROLOGY

Effect of 3-Dimensional Virtual Reality Models for Surgical Planning of Robotic-Assisted Partial Nephrectomy on Surgical Outcomes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This single-blind randomized clinical trial examines whether 3-dimensional (3-D) virtual reality models used to plan robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy can reduce the operative time, estimated blood loss, clamp time, and length of hospital stay.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911598. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11598
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Evaluation of Continuous Tumor-Size–Based End Points as Surrogates for Overall Survival in Randomized Clinical Trials in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

This study examines the use of time to nadir and depth of nadir as surrogate end points for overall survival in phase 3 randomized clinical trials evaluating first-line treatment in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911750. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11750
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

CARDIOLOGY

Association of Early-Stage Breast Cancer and Subsequent Chemotherapy With Risk of Atrial Fibrillation

This matched cohort study investigates whether early-stage breast cancer and subsequent chemotherapy are associated with the risk of developing atrial fibrillation among women in Ontario, Canada, who were diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer compared with women without breast cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911838. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11838
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Association of Tumor Protein p53 and Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated Comutation With Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Mortality in Patients With Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

This cohort study examines the association of comutation of tumor protein p53 (TP53) and ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) genes with response to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment and overall survival among patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911895. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11895
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

SUBSTANCE USE AND ADDICTION

A National Survey of Marijuana Use Among US Adults With Medical Conditions, 2016-2017

This survey study analyzes the prevalence and patterns of marijuana use among adults with and without medical conditions using data from the 2016 and 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys.

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JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911936. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11936
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PSYCHIATRY

Effect of Light Flashes vs Sham Therapy During Sleep With Adjunct Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Sleep Quality Among Adolescents: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial examines whether a novel intervention, using both light exposure during sleep and cognitive behavioral therapy, increases total sleep time in teenagers by enabling them to go to sleep earlier than usual.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911944. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11944
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Cost-effectiveness of Atezolizumab Combination Therapy for First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Nonsquamous Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer in the United States

This economic evaluation examines whether atezolizumab plus bevacizumab, carboplatin, and paclitaxel is cost-effective vs bevacizumab, carboplatin, and paclitaxel alone as a first-line treatment for US patients with metastatic nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911952. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11952
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Association of Untargeted Urinary Metabolomics and Lung Cancer Risk Among Never-Smoking Women in China

This case-control study investigates the association between urinary metabolomic biomarkers and lung cancer risk among never-smoking women in China.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911970. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11970
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Association of BCG Vaccination in Childhood With Subsequent Cancer Diagnoses: A 60-Year Follow-up of a Clinical Trial

This 60-year follow-up of a clinical trial investigates the association between BCG vaccination during childhood and diagnosis with cancer in adulthood.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912014. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12014
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

DIABETES AND ENDOCRINOLOGY

Patient and Health Care Factors Associated With Long-term Diabetes Complications Among Adults With and Without Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders

This cohort study uses data from the US Veterans Affairs health care systems to examine whether preexisting mental health or substance use disorders and primary care utilization before a new diabetes diagnosis are associated with the long-term severity of diabetes complications.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912060. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12060
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

SURGERY

Association of Early, High Plasma-to–Red Blood Cell Transfusion Ratio With Mortality in Adults With Severe Bleeding After Trauma

This cohort study analyzes data from the French national trauma registry Traumabase to examine whether an early, high ratio of fresh frozen plasma to packed red blood cells is associated with all-cause 30-day mortality in adults with severe bleeding after trauma.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912076. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12076
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

GERIATRICS

Health System and Beneficiary Costs Associated With Intensive End-of-Life Medical Services

To provide physicians with reference cost estimates, this cohort study quantifies beneficiary and health system costs incurred in association with receipt of intensive medical services in the last month of life among patients with advanced cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912161. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12161
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

CARDIOLOGY

Association of Optimism With Cardiovascular Events and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

This meta-analysis assesses whether individuals with a mindset of optimism have a lower risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality.

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JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912200. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12200
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF CME & MOC

PEDIATRICS

Association of Rotavirus Vaccination With Inpatient and Emergency Department Visits Among Children Seeking Care for Acute Gastroenteritis, 2010-2016

This case-control study assesses US vaccine effectiveness for 2 rotavirus vaccines in preventing rotavirus inpatient and emergency department visits among children younger than 5 years.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912242. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12242
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Association of a Comprehensive Smoking Cessation Program With Smoking Abstinence Among Patients With Cancer

This cohort analysis examines the use of a tobacco treatment program for patients with cancer who continue to smoke after diagnosis.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912251. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12251
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Association of a Pathway-Specific Genetic Risk Score With Risk of Radiation-Associated Contralateral Breast Cancer

This case-control study assesses the association of a genetic risk score based on variants in a DNA repair pathway with risk of a second primary contralateral breast cancer after radiation therapy for a first breast cancer.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912259. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12259
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Association of Bundled Payments for Joint Replacement Surgery and Patient Outcomes With Simultaneous Hospital Participation in Accountable Care Organizations

This cohort study examines the association between coparticipation in voluntary accountable care organizations (ACOs) and hospital performance on lower-extremity joint replacement outcomes and spending.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912270. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12270
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Association of Germline Variants in Natural Killer Cells With Tumor Immune Microenvironment Subtypes, Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes, Immunotherapy Response, Clinical Outcomes, and Cancer Risk

This genetic association study examines whether germline variants of natural killer cells are associated with tumor immune microenvironment subtypes, the abundance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, response to immune checkpoint therapy, clinical outcomes, and cancer risk.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e199292. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9292
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Effect of a Standard vs Enhanced Implementation Strategy to Improve Antibiotic Prescribing in Nursing Homes: A Trial Protocol of the Improving Management of Urinary Tract Infections in Nursing Institutions Through Facilitated Implementation (IMUNIFI) Study

This trial protocol describes a randomized clinical trial intended to compare 2 strategies for implementing a toolkit for enhancing recognition and management of urinary tract infections in nursing homes.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e199526. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9526
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

NEUROLOGY

Association of Short-term Change in Leukocyte Telomere Length With Cortical Thickness and Outcomes of Mental Training Among Healthy Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial examines the effect of mental attention training on leukocyte telomere length and cortical thickness among healthy adults.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e199687. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9687
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

Long-term Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among Firefighters After the World Trade Center Disaster

This cohort study examines the long-term risk for the development of cardiovascular disease in firefighters who responded to the World Trade Center disaster on September 11, 2001, and worked at the site thereafter.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e199775. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9775
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF
open access Editorial

Climate Change and Health: JAMA Network Open Call for Papers

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912502. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12502
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

The 2019 USPSTF Report on Screening for Asymptomatic Bacteriuria—Lessons From History

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JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912522. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12522
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open access Invited Commentary

MEDICAL EDUCATION

Meeting the Challenge of True Representation in US Medical Colleges

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910474. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10474
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ANESTHESIOLOGY

Opioid Prescribing After Surgery—Cause for Concern?

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910721. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10721
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PUBLIC HEALTH

Transgender and Gender-Diverse Adolescents’ Experiences of Violence, Depression, Anxiety, and Suicidal Ideation in the People’s Republic of China

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911068. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11068
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

EMERGENCY MEDICINE

Early Identification of People Who Would Benefit From a Palliative Approach—Moving From Surprise to Routine

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911146. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11146
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PEDIATRICS

The Importance of Connection and Context in Adolescent Violence

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911374. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11374
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

National Data on Social Risk Screening Underscore the Need for Implementation Research

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911513. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11513
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

HEALTH POLICY

Electronic Health Records—A System Only as Beneficial as Its Data

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911679. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11679
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Using Machine Learning to Bend the Cost Curve—Addressing High-Cost Targeted Therapeutics

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911913. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11913
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

PSYCHIATRY

What Are Factorial Experiments and Why Can They Be Helpful?

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911917. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11917
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

CARDIOLOGY

Optimism and Health: Where Do We Go From Here?

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912211. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12211
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

ONCOLOGY

Effective Cessation Treatment for Patients With Cancer Who Smoke—The Fourth Pillar of Cancer Care

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912264. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12264
Abstract Full Text pdf link PDF

INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Taking a Ride on the Stewardship Side of Long-term Care: The Cadillac and the Camry

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e199515. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9515
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open access Research Letter

ORTHOPEDICS

Assessment for Perioperative Hyperglycemia Prior to Total Joint Replacement in Patients With and Without Diabetes

This cohort study examines rates of screening for hyperglycemia before total joint replacement among Medicare enrollees with and without diabetes.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910589. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10589
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INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Assessment and Comparison of Hepatitis C Viremia in the Prison Systems of New Mexico and Georgia

This cross-sectional study assesses and compares the prevalence of hepatitis C virus among criminal justice populations in New Mexico, a state with high hepatitis C virus prevalence, and Georgia, a state with low hepatitis C virus prevalence.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1910900. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.10900
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HEALTH POLICY

Association of Grit Scores With Treatment Adherence and Biomarkers in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

This cohort study analyzes the association of grit scores with treatment adherence, as measured with a survey and biomarker levels, among patients with type 2 diabetes.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911476. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11476
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HEALTH POLICY

Optimizing Postoperative Opioid Prescribing Through Quality-Based Reimbursement

This quality improvement study examines the use of a novel reimbursement incentive for surgeons to counsel patients on an opioid-sparing pathway for postoperative pain management.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911619. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11619
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MEDICAL EDUCATION

Effect of the iExaminer Teaching Method on Fundus Examination Skills: A Randomized Clinical Trial

This randomized clinical trial compares the effect of the iExaminer teaching method on fundus examination skills with the traditional teaching method.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911891. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11891
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GERIATRICS

Voluntary vs Electrically Stimulated Activation in Age-Related Muscle Weakness

This cross-sectional study compares voluntary neural activation of lower extremity muscles in clinically weak older adults vs stronger older adults.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912052. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12052
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HEALTH POLICY

Analysis of State-Level Drug Pricing Transparency Laws in the United States

This cross-sectional study examines state drug pricing transparency laws enacted to increase supply chain price transparency in the United States.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912104. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12104
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CARDIOLOGY

Assessment of Hospital Readmission Rates, Risk Factors, and Causes After Cardiac Arrest: Analysis of the US Nationwide Readmissions Database

This cohort study investigates the rate, timing, and causes of hospital readmission after cardiac arrest and the risk factors associated with readmission.

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912208. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12208
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open access Correction

Error in eFigure 1 in the Supplement

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1912622. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.12622
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Error in Byline

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1913086. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.13086
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Data Error in Results

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e199327. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.9327
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open access JAMA Network Open Masthead

JAMA Network Open

JAMA Netw Open. 2019;2(9):e1911473. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.11473
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