This cohort study uses propensity score matching analyses of 3 years of data from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study to assess whether there is an association between electronic nicotine delivery system use and changes in the frequency or intensity of cigarette smoking among young adults who have ever smoked.
This cohort study examines the association of neurofilament light levels with long-term brain atrophy and disease progression in multiple sclerosis.
This cohort study assess the incidence, persistence, and remission rates of insomnia over a 5-year period in a population-based sample in Canada.
This cross-sectional study assesses the participation and detection rates of a lung cancer screening program in China and the factors associated with participation and detection among individuals at high risk for lung cancer.
This case series describes the clinical features, bronchoscopic findings, imaging patterns, and outcomes of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use–associated lung injury (EVALI).
This cohort study evaluates whether noninterruptive display of patient photographs in the banner of the electronic health record is associated with a decreased rate of wrong-patient order entry errors.
This cohort study examines the association of age and exposure to neighborhood-level violence with subsequent depression onset in an area with medium-intensity armed conflict.
This cohort study tests a frailty meter that does not rely on gait to determine the risk of 30-day major adverse events among patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia who have undergone lower extremity revascularization.
This cohort study examines the association of electronic cigarette use with incidence of respiratory conditions among participants of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study.
This cohort study examined levels of community trust in survey responses from communities in Iwanuma City, Japan, hosting resettled survivors of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.
This decision analytical model study assesses the burden of hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance in the era of new hepatitis C antiviral treatments by projecting the number and the characteristics of new hepatocellular carcinoma incident cases and candidates for routine hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance.
This qualitative study used a mixed-methods approach to analyze survey and narrative data on how professionalism standards are operationalized and perceived in diverse health care work and learning environments.
This cohort study examines patient characteristics associated with recovery time in pediatric patients with mild traumatic brain injury treated at concussion specialty clinics.
This cohort study examines the association of adherence to Mediterranean or Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 diets with incidence of erectile dysfunction in men.
This survey study evaluates the frequency of resident physician experiences with and responses to a range of biased patient behaviors.
This cohort study evaluates the association of different adjuvant therapies with survival outcomes in patients with triple-negative breast cancer.
This cohort study develops and validates deep learning models to understand public perceptions of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines from the perspective of behavior change theories using data from social media.
This cross-sectional study evaluates the use of machine learning for prediction of congenital adrenal hyperplasia based on distinct facial morphologic features.
This cross-sectional study used NHANES data from 1999 to 2016 to assess the trends in self-reported hepatitis B vaccination coverage and serologic evidence of immunity among children and adolescents in the US.
This cross-sectional study describes the development and evaluation of a deep learning model to identify allergic reaction in the free-text narrative of hospital safety reports.
This cohort study evaluates whether interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with immune checkpoint inhibitor–induced interstitial lung disease in patients with nonlung cancers.
This prognostic study develops and validates a prediction model for neurological outcomes of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with shockable rhythm treated with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
This cohort study examines the use of patient- and cyst-related factors available at baseline for estimation of the risk of progression in patients with branch-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.
This diagnostic study evaluates whether the use of an artificial intelligence–based assistive tool is associated with improvements in the grading of prostate core needle biopsies among general pathologists compared with the majority opinion of subspecialists.
This randomized clinical trial assesses the efficacy of α-cyclodextrin for cholesterol control and that of hydrolyzed ginseng for glycemic control in people with prediabetes and overweight or obesity.
This systematic review studies the literature on communication between patients and anesthesia professionals, with a focus on discussions related to postoperative critical care.
This cross-sectional study assesses trends in the percentage of applicants and matriculants to US surgical specialties who identified as part of a racial/ethnic group underrepresented in medicine from the 2010-2011 to 2018-2019 academic years
This cohort study examines characteristics of high-performing pediatric heart transplant centers in the United States.
In this prognostic study, the development and performance of a clinical decision support tool to inform resource utilization for elective procedures requiring inpatient care were evaluated.
This randomized clinical trial compares the equivalence and assesses the safety of oral iron supplements plus vitamin C vs oral iron supplements alone among patients with iron deficiency anemia.
This prognostic study assesses whether machine learning can be used to develop a dynamic scoring system for predicting the severity of infertility in patients.
This cohort study examines whether enrollment in a chronic condition special needs plan is associated with improved clinical outcomes and quality of life among patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD).
This cross-sectional study uses surgeon-level outcomes data from the 2014-2016 New York State Cardiac Data Reporting System to assesses the association between surgeons’ number of years in practice and outcomes in cardiac surgery.
This decision analytical model estimates the future burden of opioid-related morbidity and mortality in the US from 2020 to 2029 and examines strategies that may be associated with mitigation of the opioid epidemic.
This qualitative study explores factors associated with surgeon choice of an open vs minimally invasive approach to inguinal hernia repair to better understand deviations from guidelines.
This cross-sectional study evaluates whether neighborhood poverty is associated with cognitive function and prefrontal and hippocampal brain structure in ways that are dissociable from household socioeconomic status.
This cohort study compares different machine learning methods in predicting overall mortality in cirrhosis and uses machine learning to select easily scored clinical variables for a novel prognostic model in patients with cirrhosis.
This economic evaluation estimates the association between the enactment of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) reforms and 30-day price-standardized hospital episode spending.
This cohort study examined the association of adding ablative therapy to transarterial chemoembolization with overall survival and freedom from local progression among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
This cross-sectional study examines changes in firearm suicide rates in Missouri following the loosening of state firearm restrictions by comparing reported suicide rates with states with similar demographic characteristics that did not change firearm laws.
This cross-sectional study examines the intraindividaul discrepancies in blood pressure estimates and classifications based on different BP estimation protocols.
This case series examines data from 2003 to 2018 regarding patients who underwent aggressive resection operative treatment for locally advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors and their outcomes in terms of disease recurrence, quality of life, and overall 5-year survival.
This cross-sectional study examines the association between neighborhood deprivation and estimates of epigenetic age acceleration and genome-wide methylation among women in the US and Puerto Rico.
This randomized clinical trial examines the clinical efficacy of the adjunctive use of sodium benzoate for symptoms in people with early psychosis.
This systematic review and network meta-analysis evaluates which operation for cubital tunnel syndrome is associated with the best chance of symptomatic cure and lowest risk of complications.
This cross-sectional study assesses whether the rate of positive BRCA test results changed between 2008 and 2018 among older women in the United States.
This cross-sectional study examines whether Medicaid expansion is associated with improved mortality among patients with breast, colorectal, and lung cancer.
This prognostic study describes a multivariate linear regression model that combines mammographic breast density with patient, cancer, and treatment factors to identify the possible posttreatment volume of lymphedema in patients with breast cancer.
This cohort study examines whether the 2018 implementation of a federal ban on smoking in public housing settings was associated with a decrease in indoor levels of secondhand smoke in New York City (NYC) public housing developments 12 months later.
This cross-sectional study assesses the association of the elimination of cost sharing for contraception under the Patient and Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) with birth rates by income level among commercially insured women.
This comparative effectiveness research examines clinical trial data on treatment outcomes used to support US Food and Drug Administration approval of novel cancer therapies that were approved for the first time between 2000 and 2016.
This cohort study evaluates the association between adverse neighborhood exposures and virologic control in pregnant women with HIV at labor and delivery.
This cross-sectional study evaluates the associations between the patient experience as measured by scores on the Press Ganey Outpatient Medical Practice Survey and patient-physician racial/ethnic and gender concordance.
This subgroup analysis of 2 cluster randomized clinical trials examines adults presenting to the emergency department with diabetic ketoacidosis and determines how long it takes to reach resolution by treating with balanced crystalloids vs saline.
This cohort study evaluates the association of restrictive abortion laws in 18 states with state abortion rates.
This cohort study examines the association of prepregnancy BMI with fetal growth development and functional connectivity outcomes among adolescent and young women.
This cohort study examines infants and parents in the FinnBrain Birth Cohort to assess the association between paternal cumulative early life stress and offspring brain development.
This cross-sectional study analyzes health insurance claims among commercially-insured individuals to asess changes in the use of health services in the Unted States during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.
This cross-sectional study provides a comprehensive national assessment of gestational diabetes in India and its socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic associations.
This cohort study examines whether there is an association between concussion recovery and airplane travel in college athletes and military cadets.
This cross-sectional study examines rates of recommended services during comprehensive postpartum visits and differences between Medicaid and non-Medicaid insurance type among US women.
This systematic review and meta-analysis examines US lung cancer screening adherence rates, patient characteristics associated with adherence, and diagnostic testing rates after screening.
This cohort study examines the trends, patient characteristics, and outcomes associated with noncardiac surgery among patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs).
This serial cross-sectional study assesses whether any race/ethnicity-specific changes occurred from before to after publication of the Eighth Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure panel member report for the initiation of antihypertensive medication classes in a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years or older.
This cross-sectional study evaluates which health indicators have improved or worsened among Black and Hispanic middle-aged and older adults since the Minority Health and Health Disparities Research and Education Act of 2000.
This randomized clinical trial assesses the effects of a 16-week low-fat vegan dietary intervention on body weight, insulin resistance, postprandial metabolism, and intramyocellular and hepatocellular lipid levels in overweight adults.
This cohort study characterizes the relative association of conventional and novel biomarkers in Mediterranean diet–related type 2 diabetes risk reduction in a US population.
This ancillary study of a randomized clinical trial examines the long-term associations of an intensive lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes with health care use, spending, and disability.
This cohort study assesses 10-year use, adherence, cost, and outcome trends in statin therapy for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in US adults using nationwide research center database information.
This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses the likelihood that methodological biases in cohort studies and case-control studies, rather than a common etiology, explain the inverse association between cancer and subsequent Alzheimer disease incidence among older adults.
This cross-sectional study assesses the association between hearing, vision, or dual sensory impairment and patient satisfaction with quality of care, communication from health professionals, and access to care among a nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries.
This cohort study evaluates risk of intellectual disability and delayed childhood milestones among children exposed prenatally to valproate and other antiepileptic drugs.
This cross-sectional study examines risk factors associated with severity of infection in patients with ehrlichiosis.
This cohort study assesses whether implementation of a validated calculator for likelihood of cesarean delivery at the time of labor induction is associated with maternal morbidity and birth satisfaction.
This quasi-experimental cohort study assesses the association between Affordable Care Act implementation and asthma treatment by examining changes in ambulance dispatch rates for asthma emergencies in New York City between 2008 and 2018.
This cross-sectional study uses hospital-level Medicaid and geospatial data to analyze the association of state expansion of Medicaid under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with emergency access to acute care hospitals.
This systematic review and meta-analysis examines 11 randomized clinical trials to see whether therapy with androgen receptor inhibitors (ARIs), such as enzalutamide, apalutamide, or darolutamide, is associated with an increased risk of falls and fractures in men with prostate cancer.
This cross-sectional study examines associations among brain volume, brain network connectivity, and neurocognitive test performance in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with chemotherapy only.
This secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial evaluates the effect vitamin D on the incidence of advanced (metastatic or fatal) cancer among adults without cancer at baseline and examines possible effect modification by body mass index.
This economic evaluation assesses the budget impact associated with adding avapritinib for metastatic or unresectable GIST in patients with a platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) exon 18 variant or after 3 or more previous treatments to a hypothetical US health plan formulary.
This cohort study examines the extent to which disparities in access, treatment, and outcomes have changed for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who are living in zip codes that are largely composed of Black or Hispanic individuals compared with patients in nonminority communities in regionalized vs nonregionalized counties.
This cohort study evaluates whether machine learning models could identify patients with intermediate-risk head and neck squamous cell carcinoma who would benefit from chemoradiation.
This nonrandomized controlled trial assesses whether implementation of a nurse-led, patient-centered tool kit for fall prevention was associated with a reduction in rates of falls and fall-related injuries in 3 academic medical centers in Boston and New York City.
This case series reports overall progression-free survival, widespread progression outcomes, and prognostic survival factors from a pooled data set of 1033 patients with oligometastasis treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy.
This randomized clinical trial examines biomarkers of carcinogen exposure in African American and Latinx smokers who switch to electronic cigarettes vs smoking as usual.
This nested case-control study evaluates the association between duration and recency of low-dose aspirin use and colorectal cancer risk in an East Asian population.
This cohort study characterizes interhospital variability in intensive care unit vs non–intensive care unit admission of older patients with isolated rib fractures and evaluates whether greater hospital-level use of intensive care units is associated with improved outcomes.
This cross-sectional study examines the association between leisure time physical activity and measures of brain health assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in older adults.
This cohort study evaluates the accuracy of a machine learning–based model to predict risk of stillbirth and neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries.
This systematic review and meta-analysis uses data from studies retrieved from a Cochrane Library, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and Embase search to investigate the association of circulating tumor DNA with disease-free survival in patients with breast cancer.
This cohort study assesses the use of advanced imaging tests, including chest computed tomography, computed tomographic pulmonary angiography, and ventilation-perfusion scan, for pulmonary embolism from 2004 to 2016.
This economic evaluation modeled the cost-effectiveness of 5 neoadjuvant-adjuvant treatment strategies for women with ERBB2-positive breast cancer.
This qualitative study describes the perspectives and experiences of clinicians involved in institutional planning for resource limitation and/or patient care during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
This cohort study estimates the proportion of incident gout cases among US men that could be prevented through modification of obesity and other lifestyle risk factors.
This quality improvement study explores clinically acceptable autocontouring solutions that can be integrated into existing workflows and used in different domains of radiotherapy.
This cohort study uses data from the electronic health records of Kaiser Permanente Southern California members to assess whether the number of doses in a hepatitis B virus vaccine series is associated with completion of the series among US adults.
This cross-sectional analysis examines the representation of female medical school graduates in residency programs by specialty using aggregate data from the Canadian Residency Matching Service database.
This decision analytical model estimates the potential years of life lost among US primary school–aged children associated with school closures during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.
This cohort study evaluates the adverse outcomes associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among pregnant women and describes clinical management, disease progression, hospital admission, placental abnormalities, and neonatal outcomes.
This cohort study examines how frequently older adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) present to the emergency department with delirium and their associated hospital outcomes.
This diagnostic study of computed tomography scans at a single tertiary care center compares radiologist descriptions of abnormal size ascending aortas with definitions of aorta diameters defined by nomograms.
This cohort study explores whether an inclusive, local health care system could serve as a buffer against adverse effects on access to health care due to actions related to immigration status in patients who are likely undocumented.
This cohort study describes recent trends in use and payment rates and in overall expenditure for skin cancer procedures in the Medicare Part B population in the United States.
This cohort study compares overall survival among patients with nonmetastatic, resectable retroperitoneal sarcoma treated with surgical treatment alone vs surgical treatment and chemotherapy or radiation.
This case series study evaluates head and neck injuries caused by electric scooters in Paris, 2017-2019, focusing on user behavior and injury types.
This cohort study investigates whether a bidirectional association exists between daily physical activity and postconcussion symptoms among youths with physician-confirmed concussion.
This cross-sectional study examines disparities in gun homicide rates among neighborhoods of different racial composition for fixed levels of socioeconomic status.
This cohort study describes the distribution of race/ethnicity among cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)–associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children reported to the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene.
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