Peter P. Reese, MD, MSCE; Iwan Barankay, PhD; Mary Putt, PhD, ScD; et al.
This randomized clinical trial evaluates the use of financial incentives to improve adherence to statin therapy and achieve a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in individuals at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2121908. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.21908
Abigail Ford Winkel, MD, MHPE; Helen K. Morgan, MD; Oluwabukola Akingbola, DO; et al.
This survey study examines perspectives among stakeholders in obstetrics and gynecology regarding the potential for an early decision process to complement the current residency match process.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2124158. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.24158
Weighing the Benefits and Unintended Consequences of a 2-Phased Match
Deborah S. Clements, MD
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2124400. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.24400
Sari L. Reisner, ScD; Camila Mateo, MD; Marc N. Elliott, PhD; et al.
This cohort study examines health care utilization indicators for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth and non-LGB youth.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2124647. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.24647
Yin Xu, PhD; Ayako Hiyoshi, PhD; Kelsi A. Smith, MMSc; et al.
This cohort study assesses the association of hospital-diagnosed infectious mononucleosis in childhood and adolescence with risk of a multiple sclerosis diagnosis in young adults using national population registers in Sweden.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2124932. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.24932
Yao Yan, BS; Thomas Schaffter, PhD; Timothy Bergquist, PhD; et al.
This diagnostic and prognostic study describes the development and evaluation of clinical algorithms to predict COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalization using patient data by citizen scientists, provides an assessment of model performance, and benchmarks model performance on subgroups.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2124946. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.24946
Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, PhD, MPH; Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman, MPH; Joanne E. Sordillo, ScD; et al.
This cohort study investigates associations between the mode of obstetric delivery and body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry among offspring during middle childhood and early adolescence.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2125161. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.25161
Batool Rizvi, MS; Patrick J. Lao, PhD; Anthony G. Chesebro, BS; et al.
This cohort study examines whether white matter hyperintensity volume is associated with cortical thinning and subsequent memory functioning and whether the association between white matter hyperintensity volume and cortical thinning differs among racial and ethnic groups.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2125166. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.25166
Madison Riddell, MD; Kaden Lam; Anna Funk, PhD; et al.
This cross-sectional study compares the proportion of published registered trials that evaluate the use of pediatric probiotics vs those that evaluate the use of routinely used pediatric antibiotics.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2125236. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.25236
Sara C. Handley, MD, MSCE; Molly Passarella, MS; Heidi M. Herrick, MD, MSCE; et al.
This cohort study examines the geographic distribution, proximity, and urban adjacency of US obstetric hospitals by annual birth volume from 2010 to 2018.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2125373. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.25373
Samantha Wilkinson, PhD; Alind Gupta, PhD; Nicolas Scheuer, PhD; et al.
This comparative effectiveness research study examines the effectiveness of alectinib vs ceritinib in terms of overall survival in patients with ALK-positive, crizotinib-refractory, non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2126306. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.26306
Strategies to Turn Real-world Data Into Real-world Knowledge
Julian C. Hong, MD, MS
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128045. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28045
Yulin Hswen, MPH, ScD; Danyellé Thorpe Huerta, MS; Circe Le-Compte, MPH, ScD; et al.
This cohort study examines how and when US hospitals have expressed public-facing support for the Black community on social media.
has active quiz
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2126714. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.26714
Tomer Gazit, PhD; Michal Gutman, BSc; Alexis L. Beatty, MD, MAS
This cohort study examines whether engagement with a hypertension self-management program with a blood pressure monitor and connected smartphone application was associated with blood pressure control among US adults.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127008. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27008
Qi Huang, MD, PhD; Shaodong Wang, MD; Qingyun Li, PhD; et al.
This diagnostic study investigates whether breathomics can detect esophageal cancer among patients without a previous diagnosis of cancer using high-pressure photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127042. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27042
Aikaterini Papamanoli, MD; Andreas P. Kalogeropoulos, MD, MPH, PhD; Jessica Hotelling, DO; et al.
This cohort study examines serum ferritin levels as a potential biomarker associated with response to methylprednisolone among nonintubated patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127172. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27172
Guodong Fu, PhD; Ronald S. Chazen, BA; Christina MacMillan, MD; et al.
This diagnostic study develops and tests a sensitive molecular assay for BRAF V600E variation detection in the remaining tissue from fine-needle aspiration biopsies of thyroid nodules.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127243. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27243
Masatoshi Nishimoto, MD, PhD; Miho Murashima, MD, PhD; Maiko Kokubu, MD; et al.
This cohort study externally validates the Simple Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury Risk (SPARK) index for prediction of acute kidney injury among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127362. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27362
Kevin H. Nguyen, PhD; Rebecca Thorsness, PhD; Susan Hayes, MPA; et al.
This cross-sectional study examines the volume of US adults initiating treatment for incident kidney failure across racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups during the first 4 months of the COVID-19 pandemic.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127369. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27369
OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY
Ophelia Yin, MD; Aneesh Kallapur, MBBS; Lisa Coscia, RN, BSN; et al.
This cohort study used data from the Transplant Pregnancy Registry International to assess associations between the mode of obstetrical delivery after kidney or liver transplant and maternal and neonatal morbidity.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127378. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27378
Marcello Tonelli, MD, MSc; Sophanny Tiv, BSc; Shuchi Anand, MD, MSc; et al.
This epidemiologic assessment of population-based cohorts investigates the change in treatment for chronic kidney disease associated with population-based screening compared with measuring blood pressure and assessing glycemia.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127396. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27396
Amy S. Porter, MD, PhD; Kristina Zalud, MD; Jacob Applegarth, BS; et al.
This qualitative study assesses the opinions of community hospice nurses regarding the provision of hospice care for children with serious illness.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127457. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27457
Urgent Appeal From Hospice Nurses for Pediatric Palliative Care Training and Community
Katharine E. Brock, MD, MS
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127958. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27958
Xiao-wei Wu, MD, PhD; Gang Li, MD, PhD; Xiao-bin Cheng, MD; et al.
This population-based cohort study assessed whether expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor agonistic autoantibodies is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in patients with aortic dissection.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127587. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27587
Christina Reinauer, MD; Anna Lena Platzbecker, MSc; Rabea Viermann, MSc; et al.
This cluster randomized clinical trial examined the efficacy of pediatricians using motivational interviewing (MI) vs treatment as usual in increasing youths’ utilization of mental health care.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127622. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27622
Nicholas G. Zaorsky, MD, MS; Chachrit Khunsriraksakul, BS; Samantha L. Acri, MPH; et al.
This cohort study uses 2018 data from the MarketScan database to characterize the most frequent medical services provided and the associated spending for privately insured patients with cancer in the US.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127784. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27784
Understanding and Addressing Cancer Care Costs in the United States
Carolyn Y. Fang, PhD; Zachary A.K. Frosch, MD, MSHP
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127964. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27964
Daniel C. Stokes, MD; Arthur P. Pelullo, MS; Nandita Mitra, PhD; et al.
This cross-sectional study examines the association between online ratings of health care facilities and mortality across US counties and identifies words specific to reviews with 1-star (lowest) and 5-star (highest) ratings in counties with low vs high mortality.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127799. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27799
Fredrik Lohmander, MD; Jakob Lagergren, MD, PhD; Hemming Johansson, MSc; et al.
This randomized clinical trial compares the amount of reoperations that occur in implant-based breast reconstructions using an acellular dermal matrix vs reconstructions without matrices.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127806. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27806
Talia L. Spark, PhD, MS; Erin Wright-Kelly, DrPH, MA; Ming Ma, MD, MPH; et al.
This cross-sectional study examines the associations of rurality, self-reported ease of handgun access, and suicidality measures among high school students in Colorado.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127816. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27816
Our Limited Knowledge of Youth Suicide Risk and Firearm Access
Eric W. Fleegler, MD, MPH
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127965. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27965
Andrew J. Read, MD, MS; Akbar K. Waljee, MD, MS; Jeremy B. Sussman, MD, MS; et al.
This survey study uses hypothetical patient and clinical scenarios to assess how US primary care physicians (PCPs) approach screening for iron deficiency anemia, interpret iron laboratory studies, and refer patients with iron deficiency anemia for gastrointestinal endoscopy.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127827. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27827
CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
Amit Bahl, MD, MPH; Emily Diloreto, PA-C; David Jankowski, BS; et al.
This randomized clinical trial evaluates whether thrombosis risk can be mitigated with the use of an alternative midline catheter with a chlorhexidine gluconate coating that reduces fibrin sheath development.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127836. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27836
NUTRITION, OBESITY, AND EXERCISE
Pooja S. Tandon, MD, MPH; Chuan Zhou, PhD; Ashleigh M. Johnson, DrPH; et al.
This cross-sectional survey study assesses the association of physical activity and screen time with the mental health of school-aged children in the US during the COVID-19 pandemic.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2127892. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.27892
Sanjay Shete, PhD; Yangyang Deng, MS; Jackilen Shannon, PhD, MPH; et al.
This cross-sectional study compares the prevalence of breast and colorectal cancer screening adherence and identifies factors associated with screening adherence among women residing in rural vs urban areas.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128000. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28000
Raquel Nogueira Avelar e Silva, PhD; Yongfu Yu, PhD; Zeyan Liew, PhD; et al.
This cohort study investigates the associations between maternal diabetes diagnosed before or during pregnancy and 10 types of psychiatric disorders in offspring during the first 4 decades of life in a population-based Danish birth cohort.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128005. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28005
Maternal Metabolic Disease and Offspring Neurodevelopment—An Evolving Public Health Crisis
Andrea G. Edlow, MD, MSc
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2129674. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.29674
Debra P. Ritzwoller, PhD; Rafael Meza, PhD; Nikki M. Carroll, MS; et al.
This cohort study examines the latest expansion of the lung cancer screening eligibility criteria for adults in the US.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128176. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28176
An Opportunity to Reduce Disparities in Lung Cancer Screening
Jiangdian Song, PhD; H. Henry Guo, MD, PhD
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2129126. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.29126
Valeria Raparelli, MD, PhD; Louise Pilote, MD, MPH, PhD; Brian Dang, MDCM; et al.
This cohort study of young adults aged 55 years or younger with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the US and Canada examines whether quality of care for AMI is associated with sex, social determinants of health, and health care systems.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128182. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28182
Su-Hsin Chang, PhD, SM; Massini Merzkani, MD; Haris Murad, MD; et al.
This cohort study investigates the association of exposure to ambient fine particulate matter air pollution with kidney transplant outcomes.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128190. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28190
PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION
Chelsea L. Martin, PT, DPT; Amelia J. H. Arundale, PT, DPT, PhD; Stefan Kluzek, MRCP, MSc, DPhil; et al.
This cohort study compares the incidence and rate ratio of injury and illness among rookie professional basketball players with veteran players and explores the association of sustaining an injury rookie season with career longevity.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128199. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28199
Joseph Jankovic, MD; Barbara Coffey, MD, MS; Daniel O. Claassen, MD; et al.
This randomized clinical trial examines whether deutetrabenazine is effective and safe when compared with placebo for the treatment of tics associated with Tourette syndrome in children and adolescents.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128204. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28204
Jian-Xian Lin, MD, PhD; Zu-Kai Wang, MD; Qing-Qi Hong, MD; et al.
This prognostic study examines the clinicopathological characteristics and prognoses of patients with hepatoid adenocarcinoma and develops an individualized nomogram based on independently associated risk factors to predict overall survival among those with this distinct cancer subtype.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128217. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28217
Helena U. Zacharias, PhD; Antoine Weihs, MSc; Mohamad Habes, PhD; et al.
This cohort study assesses whether the increased burden of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with white matter hyperintensity load and investigates the influence of additional metabolic, vascular, and lifestyle white matter hyperintensity risk factors on this association.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128225. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28225
Christine Lebrun-Frénay, MD; Fabien Rollot, MSc; Lydiane Mondot, MD; et al.
This cohort study investigates risk factors associated with time to a multiple sclerosis clinical event among patients with radiologically isolated syndrome.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128271. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28271
Daniele Ronco, MD; Matteo Matteucci, MD; Mariusz Kowalewski, MD; et al.
This cohort study assesses the clinical characteristics and early outcomes for patients who received surgery for postinfarction ventricular septal rupture and identifies factors independently associated with mortality.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128309. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28309
Angie Mae Rodday, PhD, MS; Theresa Hahn, PhD; Anita J. Kumar, MD, MS; et al.
This cohort study examines the association between treatment intensity and cause-specific mortality among older adults with Hodgkin lymphoma.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128373. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28373
Kristen Pickles, PhD; Laura D. Scherer, PhD; Erin Cvejic, PhD; et al.
This survey examines the association of preferences for more or less health care with informed choice among men in Australia eligible for prostate-specific antigen screening.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128380. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28380
Kelly D. Getz, PhD; Julia E. Szymczak, PhD; Yimei Li, PhD; et al.
This cohort study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to compare medical and quality of life outcomes among pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia receiving inpatient vs outpatient neutropenia management.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128385. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28385
Yinong Young-Xu, ScD, MA, MS; Caroline Korves, ScD; Jeff Roberts, MD; et al.
This case-control study describes the scope of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccination rollout and estimates the association between vaccination and reductions in SARS-CoV-2 infections among veterans during the first 3 months of vaccine rollout.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128391. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28391
Chun-Pai Yang, MD, PhD; Chih-Sung Liang, MD; Ching-Mao Chang, MD, PhD; et al.
This systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials compares outcomes associated with the use of lasmiditan, rimegepant, and ubrogepant vs triptans for acute management of migraine headaches.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128544. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28544
Yayoi Murano, MD, MPH, PhD; Hiromichi Shoji, MD, PhD; Naho Ikeda, MD, PhD; et al.
This cohort study investigates factors associated with body mass index in the first 36 months of life among infants born extremely preterm.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128555. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28555
Luca Bastiani, PhD; Fabio Paolicchi, RT; Lorenzo Faggioni, MD, PhD; et al.
This survey study examines patients’ knowledge of radiation used in imaging procedures.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128561. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28561
It Is Time to Inform Patients of Medical Imaging Risks
Carly Stewart, MHA; Rebecca Smith-Bindman, MD
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2129681. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.29681
Destin Groff, BA; Ashley Sun, BA; Anna E. Ssentongo, DrPH, MPH; et al.
This systematic review estimates organ system–specific frequency and evolution of postacute sequelae of COVID-19 infection.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128568. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28568
Lilanthi Balasuriya, MD; Alycia Santilli, MSW; Jennifer Morone, PhD, RN; et al.
This qualitative study examines factors associated with facilitating and obstructing COVID-19 vaccine access and acceptance among Black and Latinx communities.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128575. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28575
Kathleen P. Hartnett, PhD; Krista M. Powell, MD; Danielle Rankin, MPH; et al.
This case series examines bacterial infections in 20 patients who received umbilical cord blood–derived products marketed as stem cell treatment.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128615. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28615
GENETICS AND GENOMICS
Michael S. Leapman, MD; Rong Wang, PhD; Henry S. Park, MD, MPH; et al.
This cohort study assesses the association between the use of prostate magnetic resonance imaging and genomic testing and the initial management of prostate cancer.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128646. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28646
Timo Vesikari, MD; Adam Finn, MD; Pierre van Damme, MD, PhD; et al.
This randomized clinical trial examines the manufacturing equivalence of a 3-antigen hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine and evaluates the noninferiority of its seroprotection rate vs a single-antigen HBV vaccine.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128652. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28652
Caterina Caminiti, PhD; Maria Antonietta Annunziata, PsyD; Claudio Verusio, MD; et al.
This randomized clinical trial examines the use of psychosocial interventions in cancer treatment centers to improve patients’ health-related quality of life.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128667. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28667
Christelle Meuris, MD; Cécile Kremer, MSc; Anton Geerinck, MSc; et al.
This cohort study uses data from a primary school in Belgium to examine the possible role of children in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128757. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28757
Alfred P. Yoon, MD; Robert L. Kane, BS; Leyi Wang, BS; et al.
This case series examines the association of a novel grading system for surgeon proficiency in digit replantation and revascularization procedures with patient outcomes.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128765. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28765
Replantations and the 10 000-Hour Rule—When Practice Does Not Make Perfect
Jason Hyunsuk Ko, MD, MBA
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2129999. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.29999
Ann Hellström, MD, PhD; Aldina Pivodic, MSc; Lotta Gränse, MD, PhD; et al.
This cohort study evaluates the association of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid serum levels with the development of retinopathy of prematurity in extremely preterm infants.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128771. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28771
DIABETES AND ENDOCRINOLOGY
Sudipa Sarkar, MD, MSCI; James Heyward, MPH; G. Caleb Alexander, MD, MS; et al.
This cross-sectional study characterizes trends in ambulatory insulin use, overall and based on insulin characteristics, among adults with type 2 diabetes in the United States from 2016 to 2020.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128782. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28782
Edward R. Melnick, MD, MHS; Allan Fong, MS; Bidisha Nath, MBBS, MPH; et al.
This cohort study evaluates the association of physician productivity and electronic health record (EHR) use patterns with physician turnover.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128790. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28790
SUBSTANCE USE AND ADDICTION
John P. Pierce, PhD; Ruifeng Chen, MS; Sheila Kealey, MPH; et al.
This cohort study examines the relapse rates for adults who switched from smoking cigarettes to e-cigarettes or other tobacco products vs those who remained tobacco free.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128810. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28810
Can e-Cigarettes Help Adults Who Smoke Successfully Quit All Combusted Tobacco Products?
Terry F. Pechacek, PhD
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130924. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30924
Aparna Sajja, MD; Jihwan Park, MA; Vasanth Sathiyakumar, MD; et al.
This cross-sectional study of patients with lipid distributions representative of the US population compares the accuracy of 3 low-density lipoprotein level estimation methods with triglyceride levels of 400 to 799 mg/dL.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128817. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28817
Giulia Fadda, MD; Cesar A. Alves, MD; Julia O’Mahony, PhD; et al.
This cohort study examines the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and outcomes associated with spinal cord involvement in pediatric myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody–associated disease, multiple sclerosis, and seronegative monophasic myelitis.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128871. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28871
Yao Lu, MD, PhD; Pan-Pan Fang, MD; Yong-Qi Yu, MD; et al.
This randomized clinical trial examines the effects of intraoperative dexmedetomidine vs placebo on postoperative recovery of gastrointestinal function among older patients undergoing abdominal surgery.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128886. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28886
DIVERSITY, EQUITY, AND INCLUSION
Kekoa Taparra, MD, PhD; Jami Fukui, MD; Jeffrey Killeen, MD; et al.
This cohort study uses data from the Hawaiʻi Tumor Registry to evaluate risk factors associated with developing invasive ipsilateral and contralateral second breast cancer among women from racial and ethnic minority populations with an initial diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128977. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28977
Andrew J. Foy, MD; Edward J. Filippone, MD; Eric Schaefer, PhD; et al.
This cohort study evaluates whether there is an association of baseline diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and intensification of blood pressure–lowering therapy with all-cause death and cardiovascular events.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128980. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28980
Diastolic Blood Pressure and the J-Curve—Causal Effect or Confounding?
Sydney E. Hartsell, MD, MPH; Srinivasan Beddhu, MD
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130031. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30031
Charles F. Hayfron-Benjamin, MBChB; Bert-Jan van den Born, PhD; Albert G. B. Amoah, PhD; et al.
This cross-sectional study examines the association between serum uric acid levels and vascular dysfunction among individuals of sub-Saharan African ancestry.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128985. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28985
CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
Whitney A. Kiker, MD; Rachel Rutz Voumard, MD; Leah I. B. Andrews, BA; et al.
This cross-sectional study uses data from a single neuroscience center to assess for the presence of discordance between physicians and family members regarding prognosis in patients with severe acute brain injury.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128991. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28991
Timothy S. Anderson, MD, MAS; Alexandra K. Lee, PhD, MSPH; Bocheng Jing, MS; et al.
This cohort study of older US veterans evaluated the association between intensification of home diabetes medications at hospital discharge and postdischarge outcomes.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2128998. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.28998
Overcoming Therapeutic Inertia in Type 2 Diabetes Care—Timing, Context, and Appropriateness of Treatment Intensification
Rozalina G. McCoy, MD, MS; Patrick J. O’Connor, MA, MD, MPH
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130926. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30926
Rachel L. Peterson, PhD, MPH, MA; Kristen M. George, PhD, MPH; Lisa L. Barnes, PhD; et al.
This cohort study assesses whether school desegregation experience or its timing is associated with cognitive function in middle or late life among Black individuals residing in Northern California.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2129052. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.29052
Racially Segregated Schooling and the Cognitive Health of Black Adults in the United States—Why It Matters
Paris B. Adkins-Jackson, PhD, MPH; Jennifer Weuve, MPH, ScD
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130448. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30448
Kouta Ito, MD, MS; Rick Chapman, PhD; Steven D. Pearson, MD, MSc; et al.
This economic evaluation describes how including different patient, caregiver, and societal treatment-related factors affects estimates of the cost-effectiveness of a hypothetical disease-modifying AD treatment.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2129392. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.29392
Valuing Alzheimer Disease Therapies—Considering Costs and Benefits Beyond the Patient
Pei-Jung Lin, PhD; Peter J. Neumann, ScD
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2131913. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.31913
Barbara Coffey, MD, MS; Joseph Jankovic, MD; Daniel O. Claassen, MD; et al.
This randomized clinical trial investigates the effectiveness of fixed-dose deutetrabenazine for the management of tics associated with Tourette syndrome in children and adolescents.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2129397. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.29397
SUBSTANCE USE AND ADDICTION
Beth Han, MD, PhD, MPH; Christopher M. Jones, PharmD, DrPH, MPH; Emily B. Einstein, PhD; et al.
This survey study examines buprenorphine misuse among US adults with and without opioid use disorder.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2129409. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.29409
Julie Kim, MS; Yuning Liu, MS; Weiyu Wang, MS; et al.
This cross-sectional study estimates health and development indicators across micropolicy units using a newly developed method.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2129416. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.29416
Aurélien Dinh, MD; Clara Duran, MSc; Jacques Ropers, PharmD; et al.
This secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial assesses treatment failure risk factors in patients with community-acquired pneumonia who reached clinical stability after 3 days of β-lactam treatment.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2129566. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.29566
Zara Izadi, MPharm, MAS; Erica J. Brenner, MD; Satveer K. Mahil, PhD; et al.
This cohort study uses data from 3 international registries to examine the association between the receipt of tumor necrosis factor monotherapy and the risk of COVID-19–associated hospitalization or death among adult patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.
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JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2129639. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.29639
Kao-Ping Chua, MD, PhD; Rena M. Conti, PhD; Nora V. Becker, MD, PhD
This cross-sectional study assesses out-of-pocket spending by privately insured and Medicare Advantage patients for COVD-19 hospitalizations in 2020.
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JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2129894. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.29894
John F. McCarthy, PhD; Samantha A. Cooper, MPH; Kallisse R. Dent, MPH; et al.
This cohort study examines treatment engagement, health care utilization, and suicide-related outcomes associated with the Veterans Health Administration's Recovery Engagement and Coordination for Health–Veterans Enhanced Treatment (REACH VET) suicide risk modeling clinical program.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2129900. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.29900
Marco Di Muzio, PhD; Giulia Diella, MSc; Emanuele Di Simone, PhD; et al.
This cohort study examines the association of shift rotation direction with tiredness, sleepiness, and sustained attention among nurses working forward- and backward-rotating shifts.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2129906. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.29906
Ryan Suk, PhD, MS; Young-Rock Hong, PhD, MPH; Rachel M. Wasserman, PhD; et al.
This cohort study examines the risk of suicide among US individuals with a cancer diagnosis by income and in rural and urban settings.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2129913. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.29913
Robert J. Willer, DO; Eric R. Coon, MD, MS; Wade N. Harrison, MD, MPH; et al.
This cross-sectional study of more than 385 000 children hospitalized with bronchiolitis investigates the association of the complexity of a patient’s condition, illness severity, and diagnostic coding practices with bronchiolitis hospitalization costs.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2129920. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.29920
High-Flow Nasal Cannula Use and Patient-Centered Outcomes for Pediatric Bronchiolitis
Christopher M. Horvat, MD, MHA; Jonathan H. Pelletier, MD
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130927. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30927
Li Lin, MS; Harry Haoxiang Wang, PhD; Ciyong Lu, PhD; et al.
This cross-sectional study uses data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study to examine associations between adverse childhood experiences and chronic diseases later in life among adults in China.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130143. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30143
Ashley Blanchard, MD, MS; Stanford Chihuri, MPH; Carolyn G. DiGuiseppi, MD, MPH, PhD; et al.
This systematic review and meta-analysis reports the risk of self-harm, including self-injurious behaviors and suicidality, among pediatric and adult populations with autism spectrum disorder.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130272. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30272
Wenhua Lu, PhD; Miguel Muñoz-Laboy, DrPh; Nancy Sohler, PhD, MPH; et al.
This survey study examines temporal trends and sociodemographic disparities in the treatment of co-occurring major depression and substance use disorders among adolescents in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health from 2011 to 2019.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130280. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30280
Anna M. Acosta, MD; Shikha Garg, MD, MPH; Huong Pham, MPH; et al.
This cross-sectional study evaluates whether rates of COVID-19–associated hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, or in-hospital death are higher among racial and ethnic minority groups compared with non-Hispanic White persons.
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JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130479. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30479
Linnaea Schuttner, MD, MS; Bjarni Haraldsson, MS; Charles Maynard, PhD; et al.
This cohort study assesses the rates and factors associated with outpatient low-value cancer screenings among nearly 6 million veterans who visited Veterans Health Administration primary clinics.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130581. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30581
Joshua D. Wallach, PhD, MS; Yihong Deng, PhD; Rozalina G. McCoy, MD, MS; et al.
This cohort study uses electronic health record and administrative claims data to emulate the ongoing PRONOUNCE trial, which compares the cardiovascular safety of degarelix and leuprolide in men with cardiovascular disease and advanced prostate cancer.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130587. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30587
Manfred Hofer, BSc; Jonas Ranstam, PhD; Isam Atroshi, MD, PhD
This randomized clinical trial assesses the long-term effects of local steroid injection on symptom severity and rates of subsequent surgery among patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130753. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30753
DIABETES AND ENDOCRINOLOGY
Min Zhuo, MD, MPH; Chelsea E. Hawley, PharmD, MPH; Julie M. Paik, MD, MPH, ScD; et al.
This cohort study of older adults with type 2 diabetes examines the association of incident fracture with initiating a sodium-glucose cotransporter–2 inhibitor compared with initiating a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor or a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130762. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30762
Susan H. Busch, PhD; Kelly Kyanko, MD, MHS
This survey study assesses how patients with private insurance perceive the adequacy of their health plan’s mental health and medical provider networks, whether practitioners frequently leave plans, and whether patients’ choice of plan depends on participation by a specific practitioner.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130770. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30770
Chinmoy Sarkar, PhD; Ka Yan Lai, MSc; Sarika Kumari, MPhil; et al.
This cohort study examines the rate of depression associated with residential livable space in Hong Kong.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130777. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30777
Megacity, Microscale Livable Space, and Major Depression
John S. Ji, ScD; Runsen Chen, DPhil; Bin Zhao, PhD
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130941. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30941
Rania Kanchi, MPH; Priscilla Lopez, PhD; Pasquale E. Rummo, PhD; et al.
This cohort study examines the association between neighborhood food environment and risk of type 2 diabetes across different community types in the Veterans Administration Diabetes Risk (VADR) cohort.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130789. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30789
PHARMACY AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
Mina Tadrous, PharmD, PhD; Ahmad Shakeri, MSc; Cherry Chu, MSc; et al.
This cohort study investigates the association of prescription stimulant use with risk of cardiovascular events among adults aged 66 years and older.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130795. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30795
Alejandro Macchia, MD; Daniel Ferrante, MD; Patricia Angeleri, MD; et al.
This cohort study examines the association of a COVID-19 vaccine campaign and SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality among adults aged 60 years and older in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina.
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JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130800. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30800
OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY
Tamar Krishnamurti, PhD; Alexander L. Davis, PhD; Samantha Rodriguez, MS; et al.
This cohort study compares self-reported data collected from a prenatal care smartphone app with data from pregnant patients’ medical records to assess potential underuse of low-dose aspirin among patients at risk for preeclampsia and reasons for underuse.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130804. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30804
Miscommunication About Low-Dose Aspirin for Preeclampsia Prevention—Further Support for Universal Prophylaxis
Adam K. Lewkowitz, MD, MPHS; Dwight J. Rouse, MD, MSPH
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2130960. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.30960
Sadaf Arefi Milani, PhD, MPH; Mukaila A. Raji, MD, MS; Lu Chen, MS; et al.
This cohort study examines trends in the prescribing of benzodiazepines, serotonergic drugs, and Z-hypnotics among US adults during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2131012. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.31012
Timothy J. Robinson, MD, PhD; Lauren E. Wilson, PhD; P. Kelly Marcom, MD; et al.
This cohort study uses linked registry data to investigate the biological and clinical progression of cancer associated with sociodemographic data and screening vs symptomatic detection in women with nonmetastatic invasive estrogen receptor–positive breast cancers.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2131020. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.31020
Lily Li, MD; Lacey B. Robinson, MD, MPH; Rajesh Patel, MD, MPH; et al.
This cohort study examines the risk factors for developing a severe or an immediate allergic reaction to an messenger RNA–based COVID-19 vaccine.
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JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2131034. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.31034
Li Zhang, MD; JingNan Chen, PhD; JianWei Zhang, MM; et al.
This survey study examines regional disparities in the prevalence of obesity among the heterogeneous population of Chinese children and adolescents to provide a more accurate profile of obesity among children in China.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2131040. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.31040
Liam Rose, PhD; Marion Aouad, PhD; Laura Graham, PhD; et al.
This cross-sectional study evaluates the change in health care utilization among enrollees in the Veteran Affairs Health Care System (VA) after an expansion in the covered network.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2131141. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.31141
PHYSICAL MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION
Kosaku Aoyagi, PT, PhD; Tuhina Neogi, MD, PhD; Christine Peloquin, MPH; et al.
This cohort study evaluates associations of physical therapy interventions before and after total knee replacement with long-term use of opioids after total knee replacement among US adults.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2131271. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.31271
DIABETES AND ENDOCRINOLOGY
Joyce M. Lee, MD, MPH; Andrea Rusnak, MS; Ashley Garrity, MPH; et al.
This cross-sectional study describes the use of an electronic health record (EHR) workflow to assess 6 pediatric type 1 diabetes self-management habits and examines the association of these habits with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and time in range.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2131278. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.31278
Joowon Lee, PhD; Rebecca J. Song, MPH; Ibrahim Musa Yola, MD; et al.
This cohort study examines the association of estimated cardiorespiratory fitness in midlife with subclinical atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness, incident cardiometabolic disease, and mortality among participants in the Framingham Offspring Study.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2131284. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.31284
Tsung-Lin Tsai, PhD; Shu-Li Wang, PhD; Chia-Jung Hsieh, PhD; et al.
This cohort study examines the association between prenatal exposure to arsenic and other metals and the development of atopic dermatitis among young children in central and eastern Taiwan.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2131327. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.31327
Mark J. Rosenberg, MD; Michael A. Coker, MD; James A. Taylor, BS; et al.
This cohort study clarifies the risk of internal jugular venous thrombosis among astronauts by evaluating the intracranial venous structures following spaceflight and assesses associations between intracranial venous congestion and spaceflight-associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS).
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2131465. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.31465
Rachel J. Kearns, MD; Martin Shaw, PhD; Piotr S. Gromski, PhD; et al.
This cohort study uses data on mother-infant pairs from the Scottish National Health Service to investigate the association of epidural anesthesia use during labor with neonatal and childhood outcomes.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2131683. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.31683
Evidence Mounts Refuting an Association Between Epidural Use and Neurodevelopmental Adverse Outcomes in Children
Alexander J. Butwick, MS; Elizabeth Wall-Wieler, PhD
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2131722. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.31722
Satya Das, MD, MSCI; Liping Du, PhD; Cody L. Lee, MD; et al.
This quality improvement study assesses changes in study design, eligibility accrual, sponsorship, and outcomes between neuroendocrine neoplasm studies that began enrollment from 2000 to 2009 vs 2010 to 2020.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2131744. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.31744
Jia-Jin Chen, MD; Tao Han Lee, MD; Ya-Chung Tian, MD, PhD; et al.
This systematic review and meta-analysis assesses immunogenicity rates after COVID-19 vaccination in people with end-stage kidney disease and risk factors associated with nonresponse.
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JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2131749. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.31749
Kathryn Taylor, MD; Sarah Compton, PhD; Giselle E. Kolenic, MA; et al.
This cross-sectional study evaluates the prevalence of financial hardship, including as unmet health care need due to cost, health care unaffordability, and general financial stress, among peripartum women over time and by insurance type and income.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2132103. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.32103
Michael D. Anestis, PhD; Shelby L. Bandel, MS; Allison E. Bond, BA
This survey study assesses the frequency of suicidal ideation among individuals who purchased firearms during the 2020 to 2021 purchasing surge with other firearm owners and non–firearm owners.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2132111. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.32111
Mohammad Alrawashdeh, PhD, MSN; Chanu Rhee, MD, MPH; Heather Hsu, MD, MPH; et al.
This nonrandomized clinical trial examines the association between value-based incentive program implementation and health care facility−associated Clostridioides difficile infection rates.
JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(10):e2132114. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.32114