In recent years, combined clinical, radiological, pathological, and serological findings have resulted in the identification of novel and distinct inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disorders. One such example is the disease entity of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders. These relapsing autoimmune inflammatory CNS disorders are unified by detection of the serum biomarker NMO-IgG, which targets the astrocytic aquaporin-4 water channel.1 Before the identification of its specific serum biomarker, investigators had reported that NMO was clinically, radiologically, and pathologically distinct from multiple sclerosis (MS).1
Keegan BM, Pittock SJ. Cutting-edge Questions About CLIPPERS (Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation With Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids). Arch Neurol. 2012;69(7):819–820. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2012.1015
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