Is there an association between migraine and type 2 diabetes in women?
In this study of 74 247 women in a French national cohort, a lower risk of type 2 diabetes was observed in women with active migraine. We also found a linear decrease of migraine prevalence long before and a plateau long after type 2 diabetes diagnosis.
These results may suggest a potential role of both hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinism on migraine occurrence.
Little is known about the associations between migraine and type 2 diabetes and the temporality of the association between these 2 diseases.
To evaluate the association between migraine and type 2 diabetes incidence as well as the evolution of the prevalence of active migraine before and after type 2 diabetes diagnosis.
Design, Setting, and Participants
We used data from the E3N cohort study, a French prospective population-based study initiated in 1990 on a cohort of women born between 1925 and 1950. The E3N study participants are insured by a health insurance plan that mostly covers teachers. From the eligible women in the E3N study, we included those who completed the 2002 follow-up questionnaire with information available on migraine. We then excluded prevalent cases of type 2 diabetes, leaving a final sample of women who were followed up between 2004 and 2014. All potential occurrences of type 2 diabetes were identified through a drug reimbursement database. Statistical analyses were performed in March 2018.
Self-reported migraine occurrence.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Pharmacologically treated type 2 diabetes.
From the 98 995 women in the study, 76 403 women completed the 2002 follow-up survey. Of these, 2156 were excluded because they had type 2 diabetes, leaving 74 247 women. Participants had a mean (SD) age of 61 (6) years at baseline, and all were free of type 2 diabetes. During 10 years of follow-up, 2372 incident type 2 diabetes cases occurred. A lower risk of type 2 diabetes was observed for women with active migraine compared with women with no migraine history (univariate hazard ratio, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.67-0.96], multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.58-0.85]). We also observed a linear decrease in active migraine prevalence from 22% (95% CI, 16%-27%) to 11% (95% CI, 10%-12%) during the 24 years prior to diabetes diagnosis, after adjustment for potential type 2 diabetes risk factors. A plateau of migraine prevalence around 11% was then observed for 22 years after diagnosis.
Conclusions and Relevance
We observed a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes for women with active migraine and a decrease in active migraine prevalence prior to diabetes diagnosis. Further targeted research should focus on understanding the mechanisms involved in explaining these findings.
Fagherazzi G, El Fatouhi D, Fournier A, et al. Associations Between Migraine and Type 2 Diabetes in Women: Findings From the E3N Cohort Study. JAMA Neurol. Published online December 17, 201876(3):257–263. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.3960
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