The first description of posttraumatic seizures dates back to 1700 bc, where ancient Egyptian medical texts describe focal seizures after penetrating traumatic brain injury (TBI).1 Despite the long-standing recognition of seizures as a complication of TBI, the prognostic significance of posttraumatic seizures was not clear until recently. Seizures that occur within the first 7 days after TBI are not considered epileptic seizures because they do not convey a high risk of future seizures. They are categorized as early posttraumatic seizures (EPS) and more broadly as acute symptomatic seizures. Although EPS are not considered epileptic seizures, they are not benign. They are linked to secondary brain injury and worse outcomes after TBI. Seizures occurring more than 7 days after TBI are categorized as late posttraumatic seizures (LPTS) and are considered epileptic seizures because they carry a high risk of future seizures.
Gugger JJ, Diaz-Arrastia R. Early Posttraumatic Seizures—Putting Things in Perspective. JAMA Neurol. 2022;79(4):325–326. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.5419
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