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September 1961

Memory Loss with Lesions of Hippocampal Formation: Report of a Case with Some Remarks on the Anatomical Basis of Memory

Author Affiliations

From the Neurology Service, Massachusetts General Hospital, The Warren Anatomical Museum, and the Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology (Neuropathology), and Anatomy, Harvard Medical School.
Present address: Department of Neurology, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia (Dr. Mancall).

Arch Neurol. 1961;5(3):244-263. doi:10.1001/archneur.1961.00450150010002

In 1888, Sanger-Brown and Schafer1 described an apparent disturbance of memory in monkeys after the partial or total removal of both temporal lobes. Two years later, Bechterew2 in a very brief report, described a patient who had shown an extraordinary degree of memory disturbance, as well as considerable apathy for many years; in the region of the gyrus uncinatus and Ammon's horn in each temporal lobe, the cortex and underlying structures were said to be softened. The matter then lay dormant until 1954, when Scoville3 described a grave loss of recent memory in 2 patients after resection of the medial parts of both temporal lobes. The ablations extended posteriorly along the medial surfaces for a distance of about 8 cm. from the tips of the temporal lobes, and probably destroyed the anterior two-thirds of the hippocampus and hippocampal gyrus bilaterally, as well as the amygdala. Later, these

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