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This volume contains twenty-three short papers describing recent neurological research at The Institute of Higher Nervous Activity in Moscow, almost all of which involve classical conditioning procedures. Differences between Russian work in this field and our current neurophysiological efforts are fundamental and challenging. First, these articles arc all concerned with the organization of the physiological system as a functioning whole, rather than with the details of the function of some part of this system, isolated from its connections with the whole. Second, they have expanded their interest further by the technique of "chronic experimentation," thus enabling them to study the plasticity of responses over time, rather than merely the variability of responses at a given moment. Finally, there are several articles in which individual variations are further studied as reflections of (genetically determined) physiological types, members of a given category tending to respond in a discernible pattern which distinguishes them
Hofer MA. Works of the Institute of Higher Nervous Activity. Arch Neurol. 1962;7(6):591. doi:10.1001/archneur.1962.04210060109015
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