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August 1963

Conditioned Changes in Focal Epilepsy: I. In Animals With Intact Central Nervous System

Author Affiliations

From the Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine.

Arch Neurol. 1963;9(2):188-193. doi:10.1001/archneur.1963.00460080098012

Human epilepsy is characterized by a wide variety of seizure types. The study of the particular patterns of auras and of motor and sensory seizure manifestations has proved to be a fruitful field of investigation. Study along these lines has led to better understanding of epilepsy and also of fundamental physiological patterns regarding the organization of the cerebral cortex of man. Certain types of seizure patterns suggest involvement of special, or somatosensory cortex. Examples of these are the patients with special sensory auras varying from poorly formed to well developed hallucinatory experiences. These may be quite simple, for example buzzing sensation in the ear, or more complex, as the actual hearing of music, the score of which the patient can reproduce.

There are relatively rare but extremely interesting types of seizures evoked by special or somatic sensory stimuli. Examples of these in the auditory sphere are startle epilepsy, in which

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