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The volume contains the 25 reports presented at the Montpellier Conference (August, 1961) conceived by Dr. W. T. Liberson and organized by Prof. P. Passouant. A wide variety of topics is covered that are directly or indirectly relevant to the central problems of the role of the hippocampus in epileptic processes, learning, memory, sleep, and other behavioral activities. Following an introductory survey of chemocytoarchitectonic features of the hippocampus (Lammers and Gastaut) attention is directed to the electrophysiological properties of hippocampal neurons. The studies of intracellularly recorded potentials of hippocampal pyramidal neurons during normal and abnormal activities (Spencer and Kandel) provide a suitable basis for appraisal of results obtained with extracellularly located electrodes (Anderson and Løyning, Fujita, Green, Pestche and Stumpf, and Gloor, et al). Problems concerning the properties of hippocampal pyramidal neuron dendrites, the origin of theta activity, and the role of extracellular DC potential gradients in initiation and suppression