Disturbances in respiration commonly accompany severe craniocerebral injuries. Abnormal respiratory patterns such as hyperpnea, hiccoughing, Biot's respiration, and periodic respiration of the Cheyne-Stoke's type have all been observed from time to time in patients with severe brain injuries and in particular in those patients in whom dysfunction of the brain stem exists. Other unclassified types of breathing patterns have been encountered, wherein "gasps" occur or where an unusual length occurs for either the inspiratory or the expiratory phase. These abnormal breathing patterns are associated with severe disturbance in respiratory function and are a result of the malformation of the central nervous system. Pulmonary infection and pulmonary edema are common findings at autopsy in patients who succumb from severe cranio-cerebral trauma.
Although the importance of respiratory abnormalities in patients with craniocerebral injuries has been acknowledged, few physiological studies have been made.1,2,15,16 Anoxia from respiratory insufficiency in patients with head trauma
HUANG CT, COOK AW, LYONS HA. Severe Craniocerebral Trauma and Respiratory Abnormalities: I. Physiological Studies With Specific Reference to Effect of Tracheostomy on Survival. Arch Neurol. 1963;9(5):545–554. doi:10.1001/archneur.1963.00460110113012
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