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Von Bonin discusses the evolution of the human brain from the anthropological point of view. He gives a critical review of the cranial and somatometric indices in different orders of primates. Of the three main groups of primates—hominidae, man, anthropoid apes—"none of the living primates is in direct ancestral line of man; they are all side issues, as it were." Of the hominidae. the Neanderthal group, scattered widely over the Eurafrasian land-mass, is farthest removed from the modern man, although "the earlier representatives of this group appear to have been closer to the main stream of human evolution than the latter ones..." The information on the catalogue of behavioral patterns ("culture") of the hominidae is meager. The Upper Paleolithic men "were, to all intents and purposes, modern men"; they manufactured implements, spoke, and drew pictures on the walls of their caves, ie, symbolized their internal experiences in symbolic abstractions of
PAUL I. YAKOVLEV. The Evolution of the Human Brain.. Arch Neurol. 1963;9(6):679–680. doi:10.1001/archneur.1963.00460120129019