A REFLEX blink was first described by Overend1 in 1896. Wartenberg2 in 1945 recognized that blink reflexes evoked with different maneuvers were probably identical and proposed the term "orbicularis oculi reflex." Kugelberg3 studied the response of the orbicularis oculi muscle to a tap over the brow. He recognized two different responses, an early ipsilateral reflex (latency: 12 msec) and a late bilateral reflex (latency: 21 to 40 msec). From a comparison with the masseter reflex (latency: 7.5 msec), he postulated that the early reflex was transmitted through a simple arc compatible with a myotatic reflex. However, the nature and pathway of this arc is still in dispute. On the basis of animal experiments, Tokunaga et al4 suggested that the early reflex was relayed through the main sensory nucleus of the trigeminal nerve rather than through the mesencephalic nucleus. The late bilateral reflex is probably transmitted through
Kimura J, Powers JM, Van Allen MW. Reflex Response of Orbicularis Oculi Muscle to Supraorbital Nerve Stimulation: Study in Normal Subjects and in Peripheral Facial Paresis. Arch Neurol. 1969;21(2):193–199. doi:10.1001/archneur.1969.00480140093009
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