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This is a reprinting of short papers and translations of original articles from earlier years. The original excerpts appeared in the Archives and they are reprinted here directly as they appeared in those pages. Most of the papers are greatly condensed and controversial issues are deleted. In some instances, historical oversights are overlooked such as Cleland's prior description of the Arnold Chiari malformation in 1883. However, the authors have cast their net widely, which gives their book an additional value, for within it the reader can find many of the original contributions to our craft.