• Thirty-four patients with pathologically confirmed primary pineal tumors were evaluated at the Mayo Clinic from 1923 through 1976. AH tumors were of germ cell or pineal cell origin. Most patients were adolescent boys with subacute increased intracranial pressure and Parinaud's syndrome. Hypothalamic symptoms were surprisingly infrequent. Direct surgical intervention was associated with high mortality, but has been more successful in recent years.
Donat JF, Okazaki H, Gomez MR, Reagan TJ, Baker HL, Laws ER. Pineal Tumors: A 53-Year Experience. Arch Neurol. 1978;35(11):736–740. doi:10.1001/archneur.1978.00500350040008
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