• Of 100 consecutive, adult, hospitalized inpatients with acquired unilateral oculosympathetic palsy, in 63 the central neuron was involved—usually due to strokes; in 21, tumor or trauma affected the preganglionic neuron; and in 13, post-ganglionic damage was sustained from a variety of causes. The preponderance of first neuron involvement by stroke is in part a reflection of patient sampling, but emphasizes the fact that central causes of Horner's syndrome are common.
Keane JR. Oculosympathetic Paresis: Analysis of 100 Hospitalized Patients. Arch Neurol. 1979;36(1):13–15. doi:10.1001/archneur.1979.00500370043006
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