• Occlusive cerebrovascular disease of carotid and vertebral arteries was described by Wepfer in 1658 and by Willis in 1665. Wepfer thought apoplexy resulted from occlusive disease of the vessels. Willis described collateral channels between these vessels, which prevented the development of stroke.
Gurdjian ES, Gurdjian ES. History of Occlusive Cerebrovascular Disease: I. From Wepfer to Moniz. Arch Neurol. 1979;36(6):340–343. doi:10.1001/archneur.1979.00500420050004
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