• The electromyographic responses in the external urethral sphincter to electrical stimulation of the pudendal nerve and stretch of the external sphincter were analyzed in a pediatric population; the population included a group with recurrent urinary tract infections and a group with complete or almost complete upper spinal cord lesions. Electrical stimulation produced a response of reflex nature mediated in the sacral spinal cord, frequently beginning with two components that could be individually characterized and that behaved similarly to a flexor reflex. The response produced by stretch appeared to be similar to that produced by electrical stimulation.
Hallett M, Bauer S, Khoshbin S, Dyro F. Reflexes of the External Urethral Sphincter in Children. Arch Neurol. 1984;41(9):942–945. doi:10.1001/archneur.1984.04050200048017
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