• Four male patients and one female patient of a new family with Joseph disease are reported. Their disease was characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance, bulging eyes, rigidity and spasticity of the lower extremities, dystonia, and bradykinesia. Cerebrospinal fluid homovanillic acid level was markedly reduced. Levodopa improved dystonia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed mild atrophy of the frontal lobe and the cerebellum and marked atrophy of the lenticular nucleus and the brain stem. Polysomnographic studies revealed non-rapid eye movement stage central type sleep apnea syndrome. This is the first report using magnetic resonance imaging and sleep apnea studies of Joseph disease.
Kitamura J, Kubuki Y, Tsuruta K, Kurihara T, Matsukura S. A New Family With Joseph Disease in Japan: Homovanillic Acid, Magnetic Resonance, and Sleep Apnea Studies. Arch Neurol. 1989;46(4):425–428. doi:10.1001/archneur.1989.00520400085024
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