• Three pairs of twins, each with proved monozygosity, were shown to be discordant for dementia of the Alzheimer's type and to have remained discordant for periods of 8 to 11 years. Dementia of the Alzheimer's type was demonstrated by history; serial clinical examinations; serial measurements of cerebral glucose utilization using positron emission tomography and of cerebral ventricular volumes and of rates of change of volumes using quantitative computed tomography; and by serial neuropsychological tests. The results of each of these measures showed no evidence of clinical abnormality in any unaffected twin. DNA markers from the proximal long arm of chromosome 21 did not distinguish between the affected and the unaffected member of any pair of identical twins. Family pedigrees were negative for Alzheimer's disease. The results suggest that environmental or other nongenetic factors contribute to Alzheimer's disease in discordant monozygotic twins, or that some cases arise by a postzygotic somatic mutation.
Kumar A, Schapiro MB, Grady CL, et al. Anatomic, Metabolic, Neuropsychological, and Molecular Genetic Studies of Three Pairs of Identical Twins Discordant for Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type. Arch Neurol. 1991;48(2):160–168. doi:10.1001/archneur.1991.00530140052017
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