• The efficacy of intranasal apomorphine was assessed in seven patients with Parkinson's disease and severe levodopa (L-dopa)—related "off-period" disabilities. All patients responded favorably to treatment with intranasal apomorphine. The speed and the quality of motor response and the pharmacokinetic profile showed results similar to those seen after subcutaneous injection of apomorphine administered by insulin pen syringe. The simplicity in the technique of intranasal apomorphine administration was found to be superior by all patients.
van Laar T, Jansen ENH, Essink AWG, Neef C. Intranasal Apomorphine in Parkinsonian On-Off Fluctuations. Arch Neurol. 1992;49(5):482–484. doi:10.1001/archneur.1992.00530290064013