[Skip to Navigation]
October 1993

Definitions and Classification of Tic Disorders

Author Affiliations

The following persons, listed with their affiliated institutions, participated in the formulation of these definitions and the classification of tic disorders: Stanley Fahn, MD (Chairman) Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY; Ruth D. Bruun, MD, Chairman, Tourette Syndrome Association Medical Committee, New York, NY; Eric Caine, MD, University of Rochester (NY); Donald J. Cohen, MD, Yale University, New Haven, Conn; David E. Comings, MD, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, Calif; Peter G. Como, PhD, University of Rochester (NY); P. Michael Conneally, PhD, University of Indiana, Indianapolis; Stephen T. Gancher, MD, University of Oregon, Portland; Christopher Goetz, MD, Rush-Presbyterian-St Luke's Medical Center, Chicago, III; Gerald S. Golden, MD, University of Tennessee, Memphis; Joseph Jankovic, MD, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex; Roger Kurlan, MD, University of Rochester (NY); Peter LeWitt, MD, Sinai Hospital-Wayne State University, Detroit, Mich; David Pauls, PhD, Yale University, New Haven, Conn; Mark A. Riddle, MD, Yale University, New Haven, Conn; Arthur K. Shapiro, MD, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York (NY); and Harvey S. Singer, MD, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.

Arch Neurol. 1993;50(10):1013-1016. doi:10.1001/archneur.1993.00540100012008

• Tics are brief movements (motor tics) or sounds (vocal tics) that occur intermittently and unpredictably out of a background of normal motor activity. Although tics can appear as the result of direct brain injury (so-called symptomatic, eg, from head trauma or encephalitis), they most commonly are idiopathic and are part of the spectrum of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome or other idiopathic tic disorders. To aid investigators searching for the gene(s) causing Tourette syndrome, criteria are proposed to classify the idiopathic tic disorders. Although some of these separate entities may ultimately be shown to be caused by the same gene, until that is established, it is considered best when searching for the Tourette's gene to have tic disorders classified into distinct, homogeneous entities. The proposed classification will likely change over time as better diagnostic techniques become available and can both expand and consolidate, particularly after the Tourette gene is located.

Add or change institution