In this article, the crossed syndromes of Millard-Gubler (facial palsy and contralateral hemiparesis), Foville (facial palsy, conjugate gaze paralysis, and contralateral hemiparesis), Weber (oculomotor palsy and contralateral hemiparesis), and Raymond-Cestan (internuclear ophthalmoplegia and contralateral hemiparesis) are detailed from the original reports. These and other related syndromes were instrumental in establishing important principles in brain-stem localization: the occurrence of cranial nerve palsies contralateral to hemibody motor or sensory disturbances, the concepts of the medial longitudinal fasciculus and conjugate gaze, and the corticobulbar innervation of the facial nerve nucleus.
Silverman IE, Liu GT, Volpe NJ, Galetta SL. The Crossed Paralyses: The Original Brain-Stem Syndromes of Millard-Gubler, Foville, Weber, and Raymond-Cestan. Arch Neurol. 1995;52(6):635–638. doi:10.1001/archneur.1995.00540300117021
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