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June 1995

The Crossed Paralyses: The Original Brain-Stem Syndromes of Millard-Gubler, Foville, Weber, and Raymond-Cestan

Author Affiliations

From the Division of Neuro-ophthalmology, Departments of Neurology (Drs Liu, Volpe, and Galetta) and Ophthalmology (Drs Liu, Volpe, and Galetta), the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Scheie Eye Institute, and the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine (Mr Silverman and Drs Liu, Volpe, and Galetta), Philadelphia.

Arch Neurol. 1995;52(6):635-638. doi:10.1001/archneur.1995.00540300117021

In this article, the crossed syndromes of Millard-Gubler (facial palsy and contralateral hemiparesis), Foville (facial palsy, conjugate gaze paralysis, and contralateral hemiparesis), Weber (oculomotor palsy and contralateral hemiparesis), and Raymond-Cestan (internuclear ophthalmoplegia and contralateral hemiparesis) are detailed from the original reports. These and other related syndromes were instrumental in establishing important principles in brain-stem localization: the occurrence of cranial nerve palsies contralateral to hemibody motor or sensory disturbances, the concepts of the medial longitudinal fasciculus and conjugate gaze, and the corticobulbar innervation of the facial nerve nucleus.

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