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This Month in Archives of Neurology
March 2011

This Month in Archives of Neurology

Arch Neurol. 2011;68(3):290-291. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.12

Qureshi and Mehler (Article) complete their 3-part series with this review in which they survey the therapeutic potential of exogenous stem cells and endogenous neural stem and progenitor cells (NSPCs). They also highlight innovative technological approaches for designing, developing, and delivering epigenetic therapies for targeted reprogramming of endogenous pools of NSPCs, neural cells at risk, and dysfunctional neural networks to rescue and restore neurological function in the ischemic brain.

Fueyo and colleagues (Article) document therapeutic advances in the field of neuro-oncology that were made during the last decade. First, there were conceptual advances in the molecular and cell biology of malignant gliomas including the discovery in 2004 of brain tumor stem cells. Second, the Cancer Genome Atlas project has been extremely useful in the discovery of new molecular markers, including mutations in the IDH1 gene, and has led to a new classification of gliomas based on the differentiation status and mesenchymal transformation. In addition, use of the 1p/19q marker and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation status have been identified as guides for patient selection for therapies and represent the first steps toward personalized medicine for treating gliomas. Finally, progress has been made in treatment strategies including the establishment of temozolomide as the criterion standard for treating gliomas, the adoption of bevacizumab in the clinical setting, and developments in experimental biological therapies including cancer vaccines and oncolytic adenoviruses.

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