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Magnetic Resonance Techniques in Multiple Sclerosis: The Present and the Future
Filippi and colleaguesArticle discuss the application of new imaging modalities capable of measuring pathological processes related to the disease that have been neglected in the past (eg, iron deposition and perfusion abnormalities) and the advent of high- and ultrahigh-field magnets that have provided further insight into the pathobiological features of multiple sclerosis.
No Cerebral or Cervical Venous Insufficiency in US Veterans With Multiple Sclerosis
Marder and colleaguesArticle report that their study does not support the theory that chronic cerebral venous insufficiency exists in multiple sclerosis. Editorial perspective is provided by Michael A. Williams, MD, and Arun Venkatesan, MD, PhDArticle.
Evidence for Ordering of Alzheimer Disease Biomarkers
Jack et alArticle indicate a reduction in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ42 level denotes a pathophysiological process that significantly departs from normality (ie, becomes dynamic) early, whereas the CSF total tau level and the adjusted hippocampal volume are biomarkers of downstream pathophysiological processes.
Thrombolytic Treatment of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke Related to Underlying Arterial Dissection in the United States
Qureshi and colleaguesArticle find that the adjusted rate of favorable outcomes is lower among patients with ischemic stroke with underlying arterial dissection following thrombolytic treatment compared with those without underlying dissections. However, the observed lower rates are not influenced by thrombolytic treatment.
Neurological Injury in Adults Treated With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Mateen et alArticle show that severe neurological sequelae occur frequently in adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)–treated patients with otherwise reversible cardiopulmonary injury (conservative estimate, 50%) and include a range of potentially fatal neurological diagnoses that may be due to the precipitating event and/or ECMO treatment.
Ten-Year Outcome of Subthalamic Stimulation in Parkinson Disease: A Blinded Evaluation
Castrioto and colleaguesArticle indicate that this class III study provides evidence that stimulation-induced motor improvement was overall sustained at 10 years, although part of the initial benefit wore off mainly because of progressive loss of benefit on axial signs over time.
Myasthenia Gravis–Associated Neuromyelitis Optica–Like Disease: An Immunological Link Between the Central Nervous System and Muscle?
Vaknin-Dembinsky et alArticle report that the incidence of central nervous system involvement in myasthenia gravis is higher than previously reported and is expressed predominantly as a pyramidal syndrome accompanied by optical tract involvement (frequently subclinical). These features bear some resemblance to neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease, supported also by the presence of anti-AQP4 antibodies in 7 of the 14 patients tested.
Neurodegeneration Across Stages of Cognitive Decline in Parkinson Disease
Weintraub and colleaguesArticle find that hippocampal atrophy is a biomarker of initial cognitive decline in Parkinson disease, including impaired memory encoding and storage, suggesting heterogeneity in the neural substrate of memory impairment.
A Comprehensive Genetic Association Study of Alzheimer Disease in African Americans
Logue et alArticle suggest that some genes contribute to Alzheimer disease pathogenesis in both white and African American cohorts, although it is unclear whether the causal variants are the same. A larger African American sample will be needed to confirm novel gene associations, which may be population specific.
The APOE ε2 Allele Increases the Risk of Earlier Age at Onset in Machado-Joseph Disease
Bettencourt and colleaguesArticle provide findings that indicate that the polymorphism at the APOE gene plays a role as a genetic modifier of Machado-Joseph disease phenotype.
This Month in Archives of Neurology. Arch Neurol. 2011;68(12):1504–1505. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.1504
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