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Original Contribution
April 2007

Smoking, Caffeine, and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Families With Parkinson Disease

Author Affiliations

Author Affiliations: Center for Human Genetics (Mss Hancock and Jewett, Drs Martin, Vance, and W. K. Scott, and Mr Stajich) and Department of Medicine (Drs Martin, Stacy, B. L. Scott, Vance, and W. K. Scott), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC. Drs Martin, Vance, and W. K. Scott and Ms Jewett are now with the Miami Institute for Human Genomics, University of Miami, Miami, Fla.

Arch Neurol. 2007;64(4):576-580. doi:10.1001/archneur.64.4.576

Objective  To assess associations between Parkinson disease (PD) and putatively protective factors—smoking, caffeine (coffee, tea, and soft drinks), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen).

Design  Family-based case-control study.

Setting  Academic medical center clinic.

Participants  A total of 356 case subjects and 317 family controls who self-reported environmental exposures.

Main Outcome Measures  Associations between PD and environmental measures (history, status, dosage, duration, and intensity) of smoking, coffee, caffeine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were examined using generalized estimating equations with an independent correlation matrix while controlling for age and sex.

Results  Individuals with PD were significantly less likely to report ever smoking (odds ratio = 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.78). Additional measures of smoking revealed significant inverse associations with PD (P<.05) and trends in odds ratios (P<.005). Increasing intensity of coffee drinking was inversely associated with PD (test for trend P = .05). Increasing dosage (trend P = .009) and intensity (trend P = .01) of total caffeine consumption were also inversely associated, with high dosage presenting a significant inverse association for PD (odds ratio = 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.99). There were no significant associations between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and PD.

Conclusions  Inverse associations of smoking and caffeine were corroborated using families with PD, thus emphasizing smoking and caffeine as important covariates to consider in genetic studies of PD.