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September 2019 - July 1959

Decade

Year

Issue

December 2010, Vol 67, No. 12, Pages 1429-1537

Editorial

Understanding the Effects of FTY720 on Leukocyte Trafficking

Abstract Full Text
Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1433-1434. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.299
Original Contribution

Distinct Properties of Circulating CD8+ T Cells in FTY720-Treated Patients With Multiple Sclerosis

Abstract Full Text
free access
Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1449-1455. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.312

Persistence With Stroke Prevention Medications 3 Months After Hospitalization

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1456-1463. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.190
ObjectiveTo measure longitudinal use of stroke prevention medications following stroke hospital discharge. We hypothesized that a combination of patient-, provider-, and system-level factors influence medication-taking behavior.DesignObservational cohort design.SettingOne hundred six US hospitals participating in the American Heart Association Get With The Guidelines–Stroke program.PatientsTwo thousand eight hundred eighty-eight patients 18 years or older admitted with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack.Main Outcome MeasureRegimen persistence, including use of antiplatelet therapies, warfarin, antihypertensive therapies, lipid-lowering therapies, or diabetes medications, from discharge to 3 months. Reasons for nonpersistence were also ascertained.ResultsTwo thousand five hundred ninety-eight patients (90.0%) were eligible for analysis. At 3 months, 75.5% of subjects continued taking all secondary prevention medications prescribed at discharge. Persistence at 3 months was associated with decreasing number of medication classes prescribed, increasing age, medical history, less severe stroke disability, having insurance, working status, understanding why medications are prescribed and how to refill them, increased quality of life, financial hardship, geographic region, and hospital size.ConclusionsOne-quarter of stroke patients reported discontinuing 1 or more of their prescribed regimen of secondary prevention medications within 3 months of hospitalization for an acute stroke. Several modifiable factors associated with regimen persistence were identified and could be targets for improving long-term secondary stroke prevention.

Chaperone-Mediated Autophagy Markers in Parkinson Disease Brains

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1464-1472. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.198
ObjectiveTo investigate chaperone-mediated autophagy in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD).DesignPostmortem observational study.SettingUniversity Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, University College London.SubjectsPostmortem samples from 7 PD, 6 Alzheimer disease (AD), and 8 control brains.Main Outcome MeasureLysosomal-associated membrane protein 2A (LAMP2A) and heat shock cognate 70 (hsc70) protein levels were compared in the substantia nigra pars compacta and amygdala of PD, AD, and control brain samples. To provide insight into the turnover of α-synuclein, degradation pathways for this protein were studied in a dopaminergic cell line.ResultsThe expression levels of the chaperone-mediated autophagy proteins LAMP2A and hsc70 were significantly reduced in the substantia nigra pars compacta and amygdala of PD brains compared with age-matched AD and control brain samples. Lewy bodies in these regions contained autophagy-related proteins. We demonstrated that decreased LAMP2A levels in dopaminergic cell lines reduced chaperone-mediated autophagy activity and increased the half-life of α-synuclein.ConclusionsThese findings suggest that there is reduced chaperone-mediated autophagy activity in the PD brain, provide evidence for the role of autophagy in PD pathogenesis and Lewy body formation, and suggest that this pathway may be a suitable therapeutic target in PD.

Meta-analysis Confirms CR1, CLU, and PICALM as Alzheimer Disease Risk Loci and Reveals Interactions With APOE Genotypes

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1473-1484. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.201
ObjectivesTo determine whether genotypes at CLU, PICALM, and CR1 confer risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) and whether risk for AD associated with these genes is influenced by apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes.DesignAssociation study of AD and CLU, PICALM, CR1, and APOE genotypes.SettingAcademic research institutions in the United States, Canada, and Israel.ParticipantsSeven thousand seventy cases with AD, 3055 with autopsies, and 8169 elderly cognitively normal controls, 1092 with autopsies, from 12 different studies, including white, African American, Israeli-Arab, and Caribbean Hispanic individuals.ResultsUnadjusted, CLU (odds ratio [OR], 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85-0.96 for single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs11136000), CR1 (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.07-1.22; SNP rs3818361), and PICALM (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84-0.94, SNP rs3851179) were associated with AD in white individuals. None were significantly associated with AD in the other ethnic groups. APOE ε4 was significantly associated with AD (ORs, 1.80-9.05) in all but 1 small white cohort and in the Arab cohort. Adjusting for age, sex, and the presence of at least 1 APOE ε4 allele greatly reduced evidence for association with PICALM but not CR1 or CLU. Models with the main SNP effect, presence or absence of APOE ε4, and an interaction term showed significant interaction between presence or absence of APOE ε4 and PICALM.ConclusionsWe confirm in a completely independent data set that CR1, CLU, and PICALM are AD susceptibility loci in European ancestry populations. Genotypes at PICALM confer risk predominantly in APOE ε4–positive subjects. Thus, APOE and PICALM synergistically interact.

Plasma β-Amyloid and Cognitive Decline

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1485-1490. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.189
ObjectivesTo determine if plasma β-amyloid (Aβ) levels (1) can be linked to specific cognitive changes that constitute conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) and (2) correspond to cognitive change independent of dementia.DesignLongitudinal study including 3 visits during approximately 4½ years (2000-2006).SettingNorthern Manhattan community.ParticipantsEight hundred eighty individuals from a population-based and ethnically diverse sample who had 2 plasma Aβ measurements and were dementia free at the time of the first Aβ sample; 481 remained cognitively healthy, 329 were cognitively or functionally impaired but not demented at any point, and 70 developed AD.Main Outcome MeasuresGeneral estimating equations tested the association between plasma Aβ (baseline and change in values) and cognitive change (composite score and memory, language, and visuospatial indices).ResultsHigh baseline plasma Aβ42 (P = .01) and Aβ40 (P = .01) and decreasing/relatively stable Aβ42 (P = .01) values were associated with faster decline in multiple cognitive domains. In those who remained cognitively healthy, high baseline plasma Aβ42 (P = .01) and decreasing/relatively stable plasma Aβ42 (P = .01) was associated with faster cognitive decline, primarily in memory.ConclusionsThe association between plasma Aβ and multiple aspects of cognition more clearly specifies the previously documented downward trajectory of plasma Aβ with AD onset. The predominant association with memory seen only in healthy elderly individuals also suggests that plasma Aβ is linked with even earlier neurologic changes that may or may not culminate in dementia.

Association of Higher Levels of High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Elderly Individuals and Lower Risk of Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1491-1497. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.297

Analyzing Histopathological Features of Rare Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathies to Unravel Their Pathogenesis

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1498-1505. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.303

Validation of Consensus Panel Diagnosis in Dementia

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1506-1512. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.301
Images in Neurology

Sphenoid Sinus Fungus Ball With Skull Base Erosion

Abstract Full Text
Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1528-1529. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.296

Atlantoaxial Instability and Cervical Cord Compression in Morquio Syndrome

Abstract Full Text
Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1530. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.308

Diffusion Tensor Imaging at 3 T in Bilateral Schizencephaly With Interruption of the Corpus Callosum

Abstract Full Text
Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1531-1532. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.311
Observation

Granulomatous Amoebic Meningoencephalitis in an Immunocompetent Patient

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1516-1520. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.309

Immediate Interpersonal and Intermanual Referral of Sensations Following Anesthetic Block of One Arm

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1521-1523. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.290

Semiology of the Rare Seizure Subtype Piloerection

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1524-1527. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.304
Book Reviews

Vestibular Disorders: A Case Study Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment

Abstract Full Text
Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1533. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.294
This Month in Archives of Neurology

This Month in Archives of Neurology

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1431-1432. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.307
Article

Error in Text in: Insulin Resistance a Possible Causal and Treatable Risk Factor for Ischemic Stroke

Abstract Full Text
Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1434. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.302
Neurological Review

The Emerging Role of Epigenetics in Stroke: II. RNA Regulatory Circuitry

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1435-1441. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.300

Prospects for Minocycline Neuroprotection

Abstract Full Text
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Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1442-1448. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.191

Minocycline is a clinically available antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drug that also demonstrates neuroprotective properties in a variety of experimental models of neurological diseases. There have thus far been more than 300 publications on minocycline neuroprotection, including a growing number of human studies. Our objective is to critically review the biological basis and translational potential of this action of minocycline on the nervous system.

From the Archives

Vitamin D and Cognitive Decline in Elderly Persons: Further Details

Abstract Full Text
Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1513-1515. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.298

Error in Abstract in: Safety and Tolerability of Immune Globulin Intravenous in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy

Abstract Full Text
Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1515. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.310
Correspondence

Neuroimaging of Transient Ischemic Attack

Abstract Full Text
Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1534-1535. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.305

Neuroimaging of Transient Ischemic Attack—Reply

Abstract Full Text
Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1534-1535. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.306

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome: Imperative to Define

Abstract Full Text
Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1535. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.313

Seizure in Patients With Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

Abstract Full Text
Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1536. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.314

A Clue to the Pathophysiology of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

Abstract Full Text
Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1536-1537. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.315

A Clue to the Pathophysiology of Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome—Reply

Abstract Full Text
Arch Neurol. 2010;67(12):1536-1537. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2010.316
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