More than 20 000 women younger than 45 years receive a diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer each year. Approximately 90% of these women will survive their disease. Hence, avoiding long-term adverse effects has become increasingly important. Systemic chemotherapy and hormonal therapy are recommended in the majority of premenopausal patients, exposing a considerable number of young patients to the risk of treatment-induced premature ovarian failure and infertility.
Detrimental effects on ovarian function are influenced by the age of the patient, duration and type of chemotherapy, and the use of hormonal therapy. A meta-analysis of 12 randomized clinical trials specifically evaluating chemotherapy-related amenorrhea in young patients reported amenorrhea rates in younger women (<45 years) receiving anthracycline- and taxane-based regimens of 4% to 30%.