The development of inhibitors targeting the programmed cell death 1/B7 homolog 1 (PD-1/B7-H1) (PD) pathway, a mechanism adaptively used by tumors to evade the immune response, has been groundbreaking in the treatment of a broad spectrum of advanced cancers, especially solid tumors. Antibody blockade of the PD pathway (anti-PD therapy) repairs this immune deficit in the tumor microenvironment, producing previously unseen durable responses in many patients with advanced-stage cancers, but a large fraction of patients still fail to respond.1 As clinical responses to anti-PD therapy correlate with the presence of both (B7-H1) expression and immune responses in the tumor,2 we propose a way of categorizing patients based on Tumor Immunity in the MicroEnvironment (TIME) and discuss its implications in cancer treatment.
Zhang Y, Chen L. Classification of Advanced Human Cancers Based on Tumor Immunity in the MicroEnvironment (TIME) for Cancer Immunotherapy. JAMA Oncol. 2016;2(11):1403–1404. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.2450
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