Heart disease. Stroke. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Lung cancer. Kidney cancer. Bladder cancer. And now prostate cancer?
The adverse effects of smoking are well established and include all of the above diseases. However, only recently has the association between smoking and prostate cancer become more clear. Part of the challenge is that the associations between smoking and many of those diseases are very strong compared with the association of smoking with prostate cancer, which tends to be weaker. Thus, while at first glance associations with prostate cancer may be null, with larger sample sizes, it is increasingly clear that smoking may be associated with prostate cancer. For example, a recent meta-analysis showed that smokers were 24% more likely than nonsmokers to die from prostate cancer.1 This link was suggested to account for more than 10 000 deaths per year from prostate cancer in Europe and North America alone.
Freedland SJ. Smoking and Death From Prostate Cancer. JAMA Oncol. 2018;4(7):961–962. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.1070
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