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In This Issue of JAMA Oncology
January 2019

Highlights

JAMA Oncol. 2019;5(1):3. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.4125
Research

Choi and colleagues performed a nationwide cohort study to determine whether entecavir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate were associated with equally reduced risk for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection in Korea. Treatment-naive adult patients with CHB who started therapy with entecavir or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate were evaluated. Results showed that tenofovir therapy was associated with a significantly lower risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma, although both are effective at treating CHB. Flemming and Terrault provide an Editorial.

Editorial

In this cohort study of data from the Nurses’ Health Study II, Liu and colleagues evaluated 85 256 women aged 25 to 42 years at enrollment with no history of cancer or inflammatory bowel disease. Among those studied, 114 patients with early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) were documented. Results showed an increased relative risk for CRC in women with a body mass index of 23 or more at age 18 years and in those who gained more than 20 kg after age 18 years.

Continuing Medical Education

In this randomized clinical trial, Buzdar and colleagues assessed disease-free and overall survival associated with sequential vs concurrent anthracycline plus trastuzumab in patients with operable human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive breast cancer. Results showed no difference in disease-free survival rates or overall survival with respect to treatment. Concurrent administration of trastuzumab with fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide was not found to offer additional clinical benefit.

In this single-arm, single-center, phase 2 clinical trial, Massarelli and colleagues assessed the efficacy of concurrent administration of a human papilloma virus vaccine with nivolumab, an anti–programmed cell death 1 monoclonal antibody, for patients with recurrent human papillomavirus–driven cancer. The vaccine was given to 24 patients at 3 time points, with nivolumab starting on day 8 after the first vaccine and administered for up to 1 year. Results showed an overall response rate of 33%, a median duration of response of 10.3 months, and median overall survival of 17.5 months.

Kishan and colleagues performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of patients with Gleason grade 4 or grade 5 prostate cancer to determine whether the effectiveness of short- or long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) varied in patients with grade 4 or 5 disease. Compared with patients receiving lifelong ADT, patients with grade 4 disease who received long- or short-term ADT had improved overall survival vs radiotherapy alone. In patients with grade 5 disease, lifelong ADT improved overall survival, whereas neither long- nor short-term ADT had the same result.

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