Immunotherapy has profoundly altered the treatment landscape in oncology. Immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) using anti–programmed cell death protein (PD-1) and/or anti–programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and anti–cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CLTA-4) has led to significant achievements in numerous malignant diseases. Yet, the success of checkpoint inhibition has not translated to every tumor type. With the notable exception of the 1% to 2% of patients with mismatch repair-deficient metastatic pancreatic cancer where anti–PD-1 therapy alone can lead to significant and durable responses,1 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has remained refractory to single-agent immunotherapy.
Osipov A, Zaidi N, Laheru DA. Dual Checkpoint Inhibition in Pancreatic Cancer: Revealing the Limitations of Synergy and the Potential of Novel Combinations. JAMA Oncol. Published online July 18, 2019. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.1583
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