Interest has been increasing regarding the association of sex with toxic effects of treatment and clinical outcome in patients with cancer.1 The risk of toxic effects from chemotherapy is greater in women than in men, as shown in lung and colon cancer, sarcoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and glioblastoma, which can be explained by different pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.1 Few studies have demonstrated better clinical outcome in women with melanoma, lymphoma, glioblastoma, sarcoma, lung cancer, gastric cancer, and anal cancer compared with men,1 but large confirmatory analyses are lacking. Intriguingly, despite the large number of phase 3 multimodal randomized clinical trials published to date for rectal cancer, the association of sex with treatment-related factors and clinical outcome remains largely unexplored for this disease site.
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Diefenhardt M, Ludmir EB, Hofheinz R, et al. Association of Sex With Toxic Effects, Treatment Adherence, and Oncologic Outcomes in the CAO/ARO/AIO-94 and CAO/ARO/AIO-04 Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trials of Rectal Cancer. JAMA Oncol. 2020;6(2):294–296. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.5102
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