It has long been recognized for that immune-mediated diseases (eg, ulcerative colitis) are associated with an increase in the risk of organ-specific cancers (eg, colon cancer).1 For some immune-mediated diseases, the association with cancer risk in more distant organs (eg, ulcerative colitis and hepatobiliary tumors) is known.2 However, our understanding of cancer risk associated with immune-mediated disease is incomplete. For example, what are the local and extralocal (if any) cancer risks associated with organ-specific immune-mediated disease? What is the cancer risk associated with less common immune-mediated diseases for which it may be difficult to assemble and follow adequately powered cohorts? Lastly, in disorders such as primary biliary cholangitis and celiac disease, the hazard ratios (HRs) are relatively large,3,4 which is in part why the cancer risk is known. What immune-mediated diseases are associated with increased cancer risk but with more modest HRs?
Stewart DR. Insights Into Immune-Mediated Disease and Cancer Risk—Delivering on the Promise of UK Biobank Big Data. JAMA Oncol. 2022;8(2):219–220. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.5572
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