Customize your JAMA Network experience by selecting one or more topics from the list below.
Edelmann MN, Daryani VM, Bishop MW, et al. Neurocognitive and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Childhood Osteosarcoma. JAMA Oncol. 2016;2(2):201–208. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.4398
This study provides the first objective data documenting neurocognitive impairment in long-term survivors of childhood osteosarcoma.
To examine neurocognitive, neurobehavioral, emotional, and quality-of-life outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood osteosarcoma.
Design, Setting, and Participants
Cross-sectional cohort study at an academic research hospital, with prospective treatment and chronic health predictors. Outcome data were collected from June 2008 to August 2014. Data analysis was completed in April 2015. Survivors of osteosarcoma recruited from the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study were compared with community controls.
Main Outcomes and Measures
Neurocognitive function, neurobehavioral symptoms, emotional distress, and quality of life. Outcomes were examined in relation to pharmacokinetic indices of methotrexate exposure and current chronic health conditions, which were assessed through medical examination and coded according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Version 4.03.
Eighty survivors of osteosarcoma (mean [SD] age, 38.9 [7.6] years; time since diagnosis, 24.7 [6.6] years; 42% female) were compared with 39 community controls (age, 39.0 [11.7] years; 56% female). Survivors demonstrated lower mean scores in reading skills (−0.21 [95% CI, −0.32 to −0.10] vs 0.05 [95% CI, −0.13 to 0.23]; P = .01), attention (−0.78 [95% CI, −1.32 to −0.24] vs 0.24 [95% CI, −0.07 to 0.55]; P = .002), memory (−0.24 [95% CI, −0.48 to 0] vs 0.27 [95% CI, −0.08 to 0.62]; P = .01), and processing speed (−0.15 [95% CI, −0.35 to 0.05] vs 0.74 [95% CI, 0.44 to 1.03]; P < .001). Results of pharmacokinetic analysis showed that high-dose methotrexate maximum plasma concentration (estimate = 0; P = .48), median clearance (estimate = −0.11; P = .76), and median/cumulative exposure (estimate = 0; P = .45) were not associated with neurocognitive outcomes. Any grade 3 or 4 Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events cardiac, pulmonary, or endocrine condition was associated with poorer memory (t = 2.93; P = .006) and slower processing speed (t = 3.03; P = .002). Survivor-reported poor general health was associated with decreased sustained attention (estimate = 0.24; P = .05) and processing speed (estimate = 0.34; P = .005).
Conclusions and Relevance
Long-term survivors of osteosarcoma are at risk for neurocognitive impairment, which is related to current chronic health conditions and not to original treatment with high-dose methotrexate. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to identify onset and progression of impairment to inform optimal interventions.
Create a personal account or sign in to: