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Kroenke and colleagues aimed to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and colorectal cancer (CRC) outcomes. They evaluated 3408 men and women aged 18 to 80 years with stage I to III CRC. Body mass index at (and following) diagnosis of CRC was associated with all-cause and disease-specific mortality, with different spectrums of BMI associated with different risk. Renehan and Sperrin provide an Editorial.
Song and Giovannucci sought to estimate the proportion of cases and deaths of carcinomas among white patients in the United States that can be potentially prevented by lifestyle modification. They assessed 89 571 women and 46 339 men for lifestyle patterns and calculated the population-attributable risk by comparing incidence and mortality of total and major individual carcinomas between low- and high-risk groups. The authors found that roughly 20% to 40% of cancer cases and half of cancer deaths can be potentially prevented through lifestyle modification. They argue that these results support primary prevention as a priority for cancer control. Colditz and Sutcliffe provide an Editorial.
Editorial and Related Article
Continuing Medical Education
Greenlee and colleagues aimed to determine whether complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is associated with decreased acceptance of breast cancer chemotherapy or radiation treatments. They recruited 685 women younger than 70 years with nonmetastatic invasive breast cancer and observed them for up to 1 year to examine predictors of breast cancer treatment initiation. Among women for whom chemotherapy was indicated, dietary supplement users and women with high CAM index scores were less likely than nonusers to initiate chemotherapy, while use of mind-body practices had no effect. Zachariae provides an Invited Commentary.
This subgroup analysis aimed to evaluate the safety and potential benefit of treatment with nivolumab, a programmed cell death 1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, beyond investigator-assessed first progression in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. George and colleagues found that in 36 patients who continued nivolumab treatment beyond Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors–defined first progression, 25 demonstrated reductions in tumor burden or stabilization in the size of target lesions after first progression. Margolin provides an Invited Commentary.
Lu and colleagues used a national matched cohort study in a Swedish population to examine the relative risks of psychiatric comorbidities during the periods before and after cancer diagnosis. In 304 118 patients with cancer and 3 041 174 cancer-free individuals, the authors found that the relative rate for all studied mental disorders started to increase from 10 months before cancer diagnosis, peaked during the first week after diagnosis, and decreased rapidly thereafter but remained elevated 10 years after cancer diagnosis. Lu and colleagues argue that these findings support the existing guidelines of integrating psychological management into cancer care.
Highlights. JAMA Oncol. 2016;2(9):1113. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2015.3533
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