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Long-term Survival in Patients Treated With Nivolumab
Data on long-term survival in patients receiving nivolumab are limited. Topalian et al performed a secondary analysis of the phase 1 CA209-003 trial to assess long-term overall survival among patients with advanced melanoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), or non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received nivolumab during one of the first phase 1 trials conducted with the drug. Results showed that nivolumab was associated with long-term survival in heavily pretreated patients with advanced melanoma, RCC, or NSCLC. Zimmermann and Peters provide an Editorial.
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Continuing Medical Education
Durvalumab Therapy for mPDAC
New treatment options for metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC) are needed. O’Reilly et al performed a phase 2 randomized trial of durvalumab plus tremelimumab therapy vs durvalumab alone in patients with mPDAC to evaluate the safety and efficacy of durvalumab alone vs combined therapy with anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4. Results showed that treatment was well tolerated, with combined therapy effective for patients with poor prognoses and rapidly progressing disease. Osipov et al provide an Invited Commentary.
Molecular Classification for Adrenocortical Carcinoma
Risk stratification of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) based on tumor proliferation index and stage is limited. Assié et al performed a retrospective biomarker analysis of ACC to compare the molecular classification with other known prognostic factors. Results suggest that in localized ACC, targeted classifiers may be used as independent markers of recurrence. Determination of molecular class may improve prognostic assessment, avoiding unnecessary treatment.
Anesthesia Exposure and Outcomes in Leukemia Survivors
Few studies have reported on associations between anesthesia and neurocognitive and neuroimaging outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood lymphoblastic leukemia. Banerjee et al performed a cohort study to determine whether general anesthesia is associated with neurocognitive impairment and neuroimaging abnormalities in this patient population. Results showed that higher cumulative anesthesia exposure may be associated with neurocognitive impairment and neuroimaging abnormalities in long-term survivors of lymphoblastic leukemia, which suggests that anesthesia exposures should be limited in pediatric patients with chronic medical conditions who undergo multiple medical procedures.
Molecular Relapse Detection in Early-Stage Breast Cancer
Although current treatment cures most patients with early-stage, primary breast cancer, better techniques are needed to identify those at risk of relapse. Garcia-Murillas et al performed a multicenter, sample collection, validation study to assess the clinical validity of molecular relapse detection with circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis in early-stage breast cancer. Results showed that detection of ctDNA during the follow-up period was associated with a high risk of future relapse. Karthikeyan and Park provide an Invited Commentary.
Highlights. JAMA Oncol. 2019;5(10):1379. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.4785
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